Foreign Policy 1653-1659

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When was the Treaty of Westminster?
1654
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What was the Treaty of Westminster?
success- peace between the english and the dutch
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Why did Cromwell want peace with the Dutch?
Cromwell wanted to- natural alliance as they were both protestant countries, also stopped Charles S from exploiting his links with the House of Orange & would allow England to trade in the Baltic again, increasing their power across Europe
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When was the Western Design?
Dec 1654- April 1655
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What was the Western Design?
failure- English fleet were defeated in San Domingo because the naval fleets were poorly organised and had little supplies or training
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Why did Cromwell and Lambert disagree about the Western Design?
Lambert thought that France posed a bigger threat and that the protectorate wasn't financially capable of coping with the war- Cromwell wanted it for godly reasons
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What and when was the Piedmont massacre?
1655- the killing of protestants in Italy by the French ally the Duke of Savoy
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How did Cromwell tackle the massacre?
He used diplomatic pressure to make the Duke of Savoy halt persecutions of the protestants
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What terms did Spain give the England to turn against Spain?
Port of Dunkirk, £300,000 a year during the war, allowed English protestants to worship in private and allowed England to trade with all of the Spanish colonies
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What did Thurloe's papers show?
that England was trying to maintain the conflict between Spain and France because they saw France as a big threat- wanted to keep them occupied
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What conflict was there between the Baltic powers?
Sweden wanted control of the Baltic- went to war with Denmark 1657
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How did England help create peace in the Baltic and why?
Treaty of Rosklide 1658- meant that England could trade in the Baltic and that no one power had complete control
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Name reasons why England used sea power in their foreign policy?
to stop European powers from supporting Charles Stuart, put pressure on powers in the Baltic so that England could trade there & used against Spain and France
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How was sea power used against Spain?
Western design however it was badly organised and therefore failed
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How was sea power used against France?
France wanted to attack the heart of Spanish power, Naples in Italy- OC got permission to station fleets at Mediterranean ports stopping the French from attacking
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Who sent a fleet to the Baltic in 1659?
Richard Cromwell
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What concern did the Lenant Trading company have?
concerned that Cromwell would be persuaded by the Ventians to support the Ottoman Empire with sea power
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What two proposals from the West Indies Trading company did Cromwell reject?
a trading connection with the Caribbean and another one with the Indian Chief in Florida
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What did Venning say (1996)?
Cromwell's lack of initiative and interest in these matters (trade) was total
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What did Capp say?
Cromwell's foreign policy was responsible for the naval development in the future
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What did Clarendon say about Cromwell?
his 'greatness at home was but a shadow of the glory he had abroad'
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Card 2

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What was the Treaty of Westminster?

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success- peace between the english and the dutch

Card 3

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Why did Cromwell want peace with the Dutch?

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Card 4

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When was the Western Design?

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Card 5

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What was the Western Design?

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