Food Technology

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Syneresis
loss of liquid from a gel on standing or as a result of damage
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Sucrose
common sugar, either from beet or cane, A disachharide made from glucose and fructose. has a relative sweetness level of 100
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Starch
a polysaccharide made from chains of a-glucose. e.g amylose and amylopectin
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Alginates
produces from ginant kelp, widely used as additives, properties include: emulsifying, stabilizing, gel forming and thickening.
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Amylopectin
one structural form of starch, composed of interconnected short chains of a-glucose to give a branched structure. it has the function to form stable gels and is resistant to retro-gradation.
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Amylose
A straight chain made of starch made of a-glucose units. the chain takes the form of a spiral helix. with 6 glucose units per turn. amylose underogoes geletinisation but after time retro gradation occours
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Carbohydrates
made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
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Cellulose
is a polysaccharide composed of long chains of B-glucose
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Disaccharide
sugars such as sucrose, lactose and maltose. formed by the combination of two monosaccharides units in a condensation reaction.
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Fructose
a very sweet sugar normally found in sugar. has a relative sweetness of 170
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Galactose
a monosaccharide and reducing sugar.has a relative sweetness of 30
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Gelatinisation
the process in which gel is formed. in the case of starch a large quantitie of water is absorbed. starches higher in amylose geletinise at lower temperatures than those rich in amylopectin.
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Guar gum
cost effective stabiliser used in ice cream and salad dressing.
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Invert sugars
a mixture of equak amounts of glucose and fructose.occours naturally in honey, jams and fruit juices
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Maltose
a disaccharide and reducing sugar composed of 2 glucose units. made by the malting process from starch in barley grains. has a relative sweetness of 30
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Monosaccharide
simple sugars. most common ones contain 6 carbon atoms. e.g glucose, fructose and galactose
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Retrogradation
the reverse of geletinisatiob. in that water is expelled from the gel. the starch undergoes a collidal change and tends to contract with the loss of water.
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Glycogen
a polysaccharide found in aminal tissue composed of a-glucose units.
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Xanthan
high molecular weight natural polysaccharide. produces by the bacterium. used for thinning
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Carrageen
a substance extracted from red and purple seaweeds, consisting of a mixture of polysaccharides. It is used as a thickening or emulsifying agent in food products.
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pectins
A complex polysaccahride found in plant cells walls and between cells. it is used with sugar and acid to form jam
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Intrinsic sugar
suagrs that occour naturally in the cellular level structure of foo. found in fruit and veg
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Extrinsic sugars
sugars that are added. are divided into milk and sugars. or lactose and non milk extrinsic sugars
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Fehling solution
Fehling's solution is a chemical test used to differentiate between water-soluble carbohydrate and ketone functional groups, and as a test for monosaccharides
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Glucose
a simple sugar which is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.has a relative sweetness of 75
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Lactose
a sugar present in milk. It is a disaccharide containing glucose and galactose units. has a relative sweetness of 15
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Reducing Sugar
sugars which contain a potential aldehyde group (CHO) exapmles are glucose , maltose and lactose. but fructose is still a reducing sugar.
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Fibre
the ingestable parts of food generally consisting of hemicellulose and pectin.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

common sugar, either from beet or cane, A disachharide made from glucose and fructose. has a relative sweetness level of 100

Back

Sucrose

Card 3

Front

a polysaccharide made from chains of a-glucose. e.g amylose and amylopectin

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

produces from ginant kelp, widely used as additives, properties include: emulsifying, stabilizing, gel forming and thickening.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

one structural form of starch, composed of interconnected short chains of a-glucose to give a branched structure. it has the function to form stable gels and is resistant to retro-gradation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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