Food Definitions

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Accelerated Freeze Drying (AFD)
Process where food is quickly frozen then placed in a vacuum under reduced pressure, ice vaporises turning it to steam & leaving food dry
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Additive
Natural or synthetic substance added to food for a specific purpose
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Aeration
When air is incorporated & trapped in a mixture
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Antioxidant
Substance that stops fat in food going rancid
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Aspiration
Cleaning technique using air blasts to remove lighter particles of food
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Basic Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Number of calories used to stay alive each day
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'Best Before' Date
Recommended date when to eat low-risk foods; after date, sensory characteristics of food will deteriorate
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Blanching
Short heat treatment using water or steam to inactivate enzymes & to shrink product
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Caramelisation
Sugar is heated & decomposes to produce range of brown products
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Climacteric
Ripening rapidly & quick to deteriorate after harvesting
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Coagulate
Set/gel
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Collagen
Soluble protein found around muscle bundles, forming layer of connective tissue
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Composite Food
Food made of different component parts
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Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Creates, modifies & communicates design intentions
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Computer-Aided Manufacture (CAM)
Monitoring & controlling of automatic production of food products based on set specifications & tolerances
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Computer-Integrated Manufacture (CIM)
Computers linked in network automatically adjust machinery & flow of informatio at critical manufacturing points
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Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP)
Atmosphere inside is altered by decreasing oxygen & increasing carbon dioxide or nitrogen levels
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Critical Control Point
When a control measure may need to be taken to prevent harm
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Cryogenic Freezing
Using liquid gases at very low temperatures
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Dextrinisation
Browning of food containing starch with dry heat
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Emulsification
Mixing of water & oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion
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Extrinsic Sugars
Visible, processed sugars used in food manufacture
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Flotation Washing
Mechanical system used to push food through different compartments & forcing food under the water by slowly rotating paddles
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Fortification
Improves nutritional content of foods to ensure minimum dietary requirements are met
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Gelatinisation
Thickening properties of starch, with moist heat, to create viscous product
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High Biological Value (HBV)
Foods containing all the essential amino acids
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Homogenisation
Mixing process used with emulsification where particle size is reduced to aid dispersal & uniform mixing
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Hydrogenation
Chemical reaction resulting from addition of hydrogen to unsaturated fat, changing it from liquid to semi-hard state (saturated fat)
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Immersion
Freezing using liquids
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Intrinsic Sugars
Invisible sugars found naturally in cells of fruits & vegs
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Lacto Vegetarian
Eats dairy products but not eggs
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Lactose Intolerance
Body's inability to break down & use lactose (sugar found in dairy)
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Lecithin
Substance found in egg yolk that can be used to stabilise 2 liquids to prevent separation
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Low Biological Value (LBV)
Foods deficient in one or more of essential amino acids
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Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
Uses a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen & carbon dioxide to prolong storage life of foods, creating unfavourable conditions for bacterial growth
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Non-Climacteric
Ripening slowly & often improving after harvesting
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Ovo Vegetarian
Eats eggs but not dairy
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Pasteurisation
Process where pathogenic microorganisms are destroyed
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Perishable Foods
Spoil rapidly; usually have high water content & good nutritional content
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Preservative
Prevent spoilage of food by action of microorganisms to improve storage life of foods
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Primary Foods
Used raw or processed only to make suitable for immediate consumption or further processing
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Rancidity
Decomposing & going off
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Secondary Foods
Combined or processed to make into new food products
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Shortening
Fat used to coat flour particles to create flaky, tender texture
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Spoilage
Food 'going off' due to natural decay, microorganisms or enzyme action
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Spray Drying
Fine spray of the product sprayed into chamber of hot air, allowing moisture to evaporate & fine particles of food to be collected in powder form
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Staple Crop
Grown in large quantities to provide basic food energy to populations
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Sterilisation
Process where foods are heated for long period at high temperatures
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Trans Fatty Acids
Produced when manufacturers add hydrogen to vegetable oils by hydrogenation
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Ultra Heat Treatment (UHT)
Process treating foods using very high temperatures
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Vegan
Strict vegetarian; doesn't eat meat, dairy products, eggs or honey
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Natural or synthetic substance added to food for a specific purpose

Back

Additive

Card 3

Front

When air is incorporated & trapped in a mixture

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Substance that stops fat in food going rancid

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Cleaning technique using air blasts to remove lighter particles of food

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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