Food commodities

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What is a staple food?
Food that it is cheap to produce, provides carbohydrates and is a base for most meals
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Name 6 cereals?
1) Rye 2) Wheat 3) Barley 4) Maize 5) Oats 6) Rice
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What are cereals a source of?
1) Carbohydrate 2) Fibre 3) B vitamins 4) Protein
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When reffering to flour what does extraction rate mean?
How much of the whole grain is used.
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What is the extraction rate of wholemeal flour?
100%
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What is the extraction rate of brown flour?
85 - 90%
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What has been removed from brown flour?
The bran
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What is the extraction rate of white flour?
70 - 75%
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What is removed from white flour?
The bran, fat and some minerals.
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What is flour fortified with?
Calcium and B vitamins.
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What are 4 different types of flour?
1) Strong flour 2) Soft flour 3) Self-raising flour 4) Gluten free flour
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What conditions does rice need to grow?
Damp, tropical climates.
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What nutrients does rice contain?
Carbohydrates, B vitamins, Protein (LBV)
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What is the difference between long and short grain rice?
Long grains stick together less because they don't release much starch so they don't stick together as much as short grain rice such as Aborio
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What is Maize a source of?
Carbohydrate, Vitamin A.
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What can maize be made into?
Cornflour
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What is maize?
Corn/ Sweet corn?
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What are oats a good source of?
Carbohydrates, B vitamins, calcium, iron, folic acid .
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What substitute can oats be made into?
Milk
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What os Barley a good source of?
Carbohydrate and Fibre
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What is barley used for?
feeding cows and the brewing industry.
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What 4 fruit groups?
Citrus, soft or berry, hard, other/ tropical
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What are some examples of citrus fruits?
Lemon, lime, orange
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What are some examples of soft or berry fruits?
Strawberries, currants, cherries
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What are some examples of hard fruits?
Apples and pears
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What are some examples of other/ tropical fruits?
Avocado, melon, pomegranite, banana
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What are fruits sources of?
Vitamin C, Minerals, Fibre, Low protein, Carbohydrate, Water
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What colour does chlorophyll make fruits?
Green
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What colour does carotene make fruits?
Orange
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What are the 10 groups of vegetables?
1) Leaf 2) Fruit & Flowers 3) Brassicas 4) Roots 5) Flowers 6) Bulbs 7) Stems & Shoots 8) Tubers 9) Squashes 10) Pods & Seeds
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What is an example of a leaf vegetable?
Lettuce or cabbage
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What are examples of a fruit & flower vegetables?
Tomatoes or cucumber
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What is an example of a brassicas?
Broccoli or cauliflower
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What is an example of a root vegetable?
Carrot or parsnip
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What is an example of a flowers (vegetable)?
Peppers
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What is an example of a stem & shoots (vegetable)?
Celery or asparagus
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What is an example of a bulb (vegetable)?
Onion
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What is an example of a tuber (vegetable)?
Potatoes or Yam
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What arw example of a squash vegetable?
Butternut squash or pumpkin
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What are examples of pods and seeds (vegetable)
Peas and runner beans
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What is enzymic browning?
When fruits go brown after they have been cut and reacted with the air.
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In what 3 ways can enzymic browning be prevented?
1) Blanching in boiling water 2) Dipping fruit in lemon juice 3) Cooking food as soon as it has been prepared.
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What are pulses?
Dried seeds of legumes suchas peas, beans, lentils and soya beans
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What are the 3 types of fish?
1) Oily 2) White 3) Shellfish ( Crustaceans/ Molluscs )
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What is an example of an oily fish?
Salmon, Tuna or Kipper
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What is the nutritional value of oily fish?
80% water 18% protein
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What is the nutritional value of white fish?
<5% fat ( stored in the liver ) 18% protein 68% water
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What does PUFA stand for?
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
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How can we get calcium from fish?
Eating the soft bones of fish
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How should fish be stored?
In the bottom of the fridge ( 0-8c ) covered. Should be used with in two days or put in the freezer (-18c)
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Name the 3 methods of preserving fish.
1) Smoking 2) Salted 3) Canning
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What 6 things should you look for when buying fish?
1) Bright eyes 2) Smells of the sea 3) Bright red gills 4) Moist 5) Firm skin 6) All scales intact
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What are the 4 types of meat?
1) Offal 2) Poultry 3) Game 4) Red meat
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What are some examples of offal?
Kidney, liver and tongue
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What are some examples of poultry?
Chicken, duck and goose
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What are some examples of game?
Rabbit, pheasant and venison
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What are some examples of red meat?
Beef, lamb and pork
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What is lean meat made up of?
Long slender fibres
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How should lean meat be cooked?
Long and slow
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What type of dishes should lean meats be used in?
Stews and casseroles
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What are examples of meats with short fibres?
Breast or rump
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How should meats with short fibres be cooked?
Dry methods e.g. stir frying
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Name 3 methods of tenderising meat?
1) Tenderising hammers/mallets 2) Mincing 3) Marinading
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Where can fat be found in meat?
Around vital organs, between bundles of muscles, under the skin
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Where is visible fat found?
Around vital organs, under the skin
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Where is invisible fat found?
Between bundles of muscles
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What effect does carotene have on the fat under the skin?
It can turn a yellowish colour
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What type of meat is high in saturated fats?
Red meat
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Which type of meat has less fat than the others?
Offal
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What happens to protein when it is cooked?
It denatures and becomes firmer.
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What happens to the muscle fibres when meat is cooked?
Muscle fibres become shorter and firmer which makes it easier to eat and tender.
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What are 3 meat alternatives for vegetarians?
1) Tofu 2) TVP - texturised vegetable protein 3) Quorn
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Which meat alternative is unsuitable for vegans, and why?
Quorn - there is egg in it.
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Where should eggs be stored?
In the fridge ( 0-8c)
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What is the value of protein in egg?
HBV - high biological value
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What is the main type of protein in egg?
Ovalbumin
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Roughly how much fat ( in grams ) is there in 1 medium egg?
6.4g
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What vitamins are provided in egg yolk?
Vitamins A,D and E
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What vitamins are provided in egg white?
B Vitamins
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What should be done with cracked eggs?
They should be thrown away?
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What are 7 functions of egg?
1) Setting 2) foaming 3) glazing 4) Coating 5) Emulsifying 6) Garnishing 7) Binding
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What does the red lion print on an egg mean?
It means it has been produced to the highest standard of food safety and the chickens that lay the eggs are salmonella vaccinated
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What is the value of protein in dairy?
HBV
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What 3 animals does most milk come from?
1) Cow 2) Sheep 3) Goat
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What are examples of primary processing of milk?
Pasteurisation and UHT ( Ultra Heat Treatment )
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What is the process of pasteurisation?
Milk is heated to 71.7c which sterilizes the milk giving it a longer shelf life then it is cooled rapidly
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Where should pasteurised milk be kept?
In the fridge
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Describe the process of UHT.
Milk is heated up to 132-140c for 1 second, then it is cooled rapidly.
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Where should UHT milk be kept?
In a cupboard until opened, then it should go in the fridge
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What nutrition does milk provide?
Protein, Carbohydrate (lactose), Calcium, Phosphorus, Vitamin A + D and B12
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What is homogenisation?
forcing milk at a high pressure through small holes to break up fat globules
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What are the 6 types of milk?
1) Whole 2) Semi-skimmed 3) Skimmed 4) Evaporated 5) Condensed 6) Dried
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What are the 4 secondary products of milk?
1) Cream 2) Butter 3) Cheese 4) Yoghurt
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What is the fat percentage of single cream?
18%
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What is the fat percentage of double cream?
48%
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What is the fat percentage of butter?
82%
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How is cream made?
The milk is left to stand, the fat rises to the top and it is skimmed off.
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How is cheese made?
The enzyme renin is added to the milk, the milk separates into curds and whey, the curd is pressed and made into cheese
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What type of fat is butter high in?
Saturated fats
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What does saturated fat mean?
All the carbon atoms are saturated in hydrogen
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How is yoghurt made?
A bacteria culture is added to the milk which helps the protein to coagulate, it is left to ferment and set
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What are the 6 types of fat?
1) Butter 2) Lard 3) Margarine 4) Suet 5) Low fat spreads 6) Oils
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What is lard?
Animal fat - white in colour
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What is margarine?
Blended vegetable oils
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What is Suet?
The fat that surrounds the vital organs in animals
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What are oils?
Extracts from pressed seeds
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What are 3 milk substitutes?
1) Soya 2) Oat 3) Rice
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name 6 cereals?

Back

1) Rye 2) Wheat 3) Barley 4) Maize 5) Oats 6) Rice

Card 3

Front

What are cereals a source of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When reffering to flour what does extraction rate mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the extraction rate of wholemeal flour?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

jill richardson

Quite a challenge - over 100 flashcards with a question/answer style. And you get even more learning value as the cards can automatically turn into crosswords and wordsearches.

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