Food

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How can Brown and Ogden's study be criticised?
Methodology. They used self report which may be affected by social desirability and therefore invalid.
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What did Kenrick find?
Asians are more likely to be bulimic. Eating disorder are not just a western problem.
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Who found a correlation between parents and children attitudes towards food and body image?
Brown and Ogden
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Who studied 14000 immigrants to australia and what did they find about culture and food attitudes?
Bali and Kennedy. Found the longer spent in the countries, the more similar attitudes were towards food as people who live there.
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What did McIntyre say about the influence of culture?
Media may influence our attitudes towards food.
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Why might Nilson's research methods be criticised?
He used an online sample, which many may not be clinically diagnosed anorexics
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Who found that women who impose a diet boundry ate more than control group after pre-load and stressful situation?
Wardle and Beadles
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Who supported taste aversion theory and why?
Gargen et al. When rats given strong tasting food before radiation poisoning, they avoided it.
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Who found that after introduction of TV there was a rise in desire to appear 'westernised?
BECKER ET AL
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Who studied over 40 000 hospital records for anorexia and what did they find?
Hoek et al. 6 cases of anorexia in all non-western patients.
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Who found a successful way to diet and what was it?
Redden. The jelly bean experiment. Those who were given more information about the beans found the study more interesting and enjoyable.
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Who found that over weight people have less dopamine?
Wang et al
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Who came up with the Diet Boundary model?
Herman and Mack
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Who claimed research into attitudes towards food was gender bias and why?
Silver. 25% of anorexics are homosexual, which means it may not be a learnt behaviour because there are other risk factors
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Suggest why the social approach may be deterministic?
It claims that all people with over weight mothers must become overweight
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Who said the Theory of Ironic Proccesses and what does it mean?
Wegner. The more a person tries to suppress thoughts about something, the more attractive it becomes.
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Who found that participants who suppressed the amount they ate and avoided certain foods eg. carbs were more likely to over-eat?
Soebs et al.
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Describe the role of neural mechanisms in relation to eating behaviour
Lateral hypothalamus (LH) detects a drop in glucose and triggers eating. The Ventro-medial Hypothalamus (VMH) detects a rise in glucose and triggers satiety.
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What is EoEA and how did it influence eating behaviour?
Environment of evolutionary adaption. Humans chose fatty foods with high protein which developed cognitive function. Taste aversion was adaptive, eg sour foods because it may be poison.
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Who said the suppressive technique of dieting was unethical and why?
OGDEN. Doctors tell patients to restrict the amount they eat. This is likely to fail which can lead to depression and hopelessness.
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Explain the Diet Boundry Model
People on diets impliment a self-imposed diet-boundary and once they eat past it binge until satiety
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Who claimed the para-ventricular nucleus was also stimulated during Stanley's studies?
Gold
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Why might the diet failure studies have reductionism?
There may be biological explanations for the failure of dieting. Eg. people with more LPL cells store more fat, so find it harder to loose weight.
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Why can Stanley's study be criticised?
Mundane realism, monkey preferences are not the same as human preferences.
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Who investigated rats neural mechanisms?
Stanley et al
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Who cricised the diet failure studies with cultural bias and why?
Parker. He found that asian people have higher central body fat, which explains why it may be harder to loose weight.
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What evidence is there that neural mechanisms may not be the only influence on eating behaviour?
The role of LPL and Gold.
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Who found that starving bonobo monkeys prefer fattiest parts of animal?
Stanley
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Who found that children prefer calorific bananas to sweet fruits?
Gibson and Wardle
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Why might the biological approach be reductionist ?
It only explains how the mechanisms respond, not how it anticipates hunger, eg. fat storages and food preferences.
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Who criticised the biological approach for Individual Differences and why?
Hogarth. Individuals have different levels of hunger and satiety which are unexplained
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Who investigated dopamine in anorexics and what did they find?
Kay et al. Anorexics had more dopamine at the base ganglia, which means there may be confusion in the perception of pleasure and pain when eating, which explains the irrational fear
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Why might food pereferences be learnt not innate?
Spices are normally rejected initially but the 2nd most popular food due to anti-bacterial properties
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What IDA supports Hoek et al's study
Cultural Validity
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What did Silver et al use to criticise the psychological approach to anorexia?
The statistic that 25 % of anorexics are homosexual and male.
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Who studied personality explinations of anorexia?
Halmi et al and Nilson
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Why might Halmi et al be criticised for individual differences?
Some women feel pressurised by others to starve themselves eg. Models
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What did Nilson et al find?
The higher perfectionism traits, the longer the illness lasts
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What did Wasser and Barash say about Anorexia?
It is an evolutionary condition. Reproductive-Suppression hypothesis is adaptive at a time a girl feels she is not ready for the responsibility of woman hood in surroundings not conducive for a child.
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What did Goode et al find?
According to the Scottish Heath Survey, upper class people are more likely to eat healthily which shows culture is not the only influence on eating behaviour
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Who investigated rats neural mechanisms?
Stanley et al
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Who said the neural approach to anorexia was positive and why?
Gunslinger et al. It is helpful for treatment, because it helps the family understand it is not their fault, and helps them be more supportive/understanding
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What did Halmi et al find?
That out of 322 ppts anorexics scored higher on perfectionism scores, so it may be caused by a persuit of body perfection.
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What methodological criticisms are there of Stanley's study?
Mundane Realism. Ethical Issues.
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Why might the evolutionary approach of anorexia be criticised for reductionism?
It only explains 'ultimate' not 'proximate' causes
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What did Kenrick find?

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Asians are more likely to be bulimic. Eating disorder are not just a western problem.

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Who found a correlation between parents and children attitudes towards food and body image?

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Card 4

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Who studied 14000 immigrants to australia and what did they find about culture and food attitudes?

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What did McIntyre say about the influence of culture?

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