Food Tech GCSE Revision

  • Created by: nevewhinn
  • Created on: 17-12-16 15:07
What are the seven components of a healthy diet?
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water
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What are the two different carbohydrates?
Sugar and starch.
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What are the three macronutrients?
Proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
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What are macronutrients needed for?
These are needed by the body in large quantities and to form the bulk of our diet.
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What are the two micronutrients?
Vitamins and minerals.
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What are micronutrients needed for?
These are found in food and are vital to health, but are required in very small quantities.
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What are the functions of protein in the diet?
It is essential for growth and repair of body tissue. Enzymes are composed of protein. Hormones which regulate bodily function are composed of protein.
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What is protein made up of?
Complex chains of molecules called amino acids.
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How many amino acids does the body need?
Twenty.
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What are essential amino acids?
Amino acids that can't be produced by the body, so are obtained from the food we eat.
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How many essential amino acids do adults and children have?
Eight for adults and ten for children.
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What are high biological value (HBV) proteins?
Animal-sourced foods that contain all the essential amino acids.
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What are some examples of HBV proteins?
Meat, fish, poultry, dairy and soya.
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What are low biological value (LBV) proteins?
Vegetable-sourced foods that do not contain all the essential amino acids
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What are some examples of LBV proteins?
Cereals, peas, beans, pulses, nuts and seeds.
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What is food combining?
Combining LBV proteins in a meal or product to provide all the essential amino acids.
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What are some examples of food combining that someone with a limited diet might do?
Beans on toast, hummus on pitta bread etc.
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What can a protein deficiency lead to?
Growth stopping/slowing down, digestion disturbance, liver failure, weak muscles which cause thin limbs, and kwashiorkor.
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What are lipids?
A general term for both fats and oils.
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What are oils?
Fats that are liquid at room temperature.
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What are the functions of fat in the body?
Used for energy, forms structure of cells, insulation, protection of organs, gives good texture and flavour, and promotes feeling full.
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What is satiety?
Feeling full after eating.
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What are some plant-sourced examples of fat?
Fruits such as pears and olives, nuts and pulses such a walnuts and peanuts, and seeds such as sunflower and sesame seeds.
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What are some animal-sourced examples of fat?
Meat and meat products such as lard and suet, dairy such as milk and cream, and oily fish such as tuna and salmon.
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What are fats?
Large molecules made up of elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, composed of fatty acids and glycerol.
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What are the two different types of fatty acids?
Saturated and unsaturated.
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What is the structure of saturated fats?
Each carbon atom in the fatty acid is combined with two hydrogen atoms.
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Are saturated fats mainly found in animal or plant sources?
Animal sources.
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When are saturated fats solid?
At room temperature.
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What can too much saturated fat lead to?
High blood cholesterol, coronary heart disease, diabetes and obesity.
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What is the consistency of cholesterol?
Soft wax.
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Which organ is cholesterol made in?
The liver.
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How is cholesterol transported around the body?
Through the blood.
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What happens when there is too much cholesterol in the blood?
It is deposited on the walls of the arteries, narrowing them and making them less efficient.
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What are the two types of unsaturated fats?
Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated.
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When are unsaturated fats soft or liquid?
At room temperature.
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Do saturated or unsaturated fats have a lower melting point?
Unsaturated fats.
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What is the structure of monounsaturated fatty acids?
They have one pair of their carbon atoms with only one hydrogen atoms attached, so they are capable of taking one more hydrogen atom.
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When are monounsaturated fatty acids soft and hard?
They are soft at room temperature, but go solid in the coldest part of the refrigerator.
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Are monounsaturated fats mainly found in animal or plant sources?
Both.
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Why are monounsaturated fats considered healthier?
They lower blood cholesterol, reduce the risk of diabetes, and are linked with a lower rate of cancer.
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What is the structure of polyunsaturated fatty acids?
They have two or more pairs of carbon atoms, which are capable of taking up more hydrogen atoms.
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When are polyunsaturated fatty acids soft and hard?
They are soft/oily at room temperature, but never go solid.
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What are trans fatty acids?
Man-made molecules produced when hydrogen is added to vegetable oils.
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What is hydrogenation?
When hydrogen is added to vegetable oils.
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What is hydrogenation used for?
To make solid margarines from oil and is used in a variety of manufactured foods.
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Why are trans fatty acids said to be similar to saturated fats?
Because they also raise cholesterol levels.
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Why are trans fatty acids bad for your health?
They are very bad for your cardiovascular system and increases the risk of breast cancer.
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What are essential fatty acids for?
Regulating body processes, like blood clotting and inflammation control.
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What are two examples of important essential fatty acids?
Omega 3 and omega 6.
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Where is omega 3 found in?
Oily fish, seeds, walnut oil and green leafy vegetables.
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What is omega 3 for?
It helps protect the heart.
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Where is omega 6 found in?
Vegetables, fruits, grains, chicken and seeds.
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What is omega 6 for?
It helps lower cholesterol in the blood.
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What are the functions of carbohydrates in the body?
Energy for physical activity and maintenance of bodily functions, provide dietary fibre to help digestion, and sweeten and flavour food.
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What are the two different types of carbohydrates?
Simple sugars and complex carbohydrates.
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What are the two different types of simple sugars?
Monosaccharides and disaccharides.
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What are the three different types of monosaccharides?
Glucose, fructose and galactose.
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What are the three different types of disaccharides?
Lactose, maltose and sucrose.
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What are the two different types of complex carbohydrates?
Polysaccharides and non-starch polysaccharides.
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What can polysaccharides be broken down into?
Starch.
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What can non-starch polysaccharides be broken down into?
Fibre NSP.
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Do simple sugars or complex carbohydrates take longer to digest?
Complex carbohydrates.
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Where can glucose be found?
In some fruits and vegetables.
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Why would athletes use glucose?
They would use glucose in a tablet or powder form to provide a fast-energy boost.
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Where can fructose be found?
Naturally in the juices of some fruits and plants, but mainly honey.
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How can fructose be bought?
In crystalline form.
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How can fructose replace sucrose?
Fructose is the sweetest of all the sugars, enabling less sugar to be used to provide the same level of sweetness.
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When is galactose formed?
During digestion of lactose.
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What are disaccharides?
Double sugars which are made up of two monosaccharides.
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What is lactose?
The disaccharide found in milk, which gives milk its sweet taste.
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What is maltose?
Maltose is another disaccharide and it comes from the fermentation of cereal grains.
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What is sucrose?
Sucrose is the most common disaccharide. It is a white crystalline substance, known as cane sugar. It provides energy but has no other nutrients. It comes from sugar beet or sugar cane, and we buy it as granulated sugar and icing sugar.
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What are common problems relating to sucrose?
Obesity and tooth decay.
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What is tooth decay?
When the bacteria in your mouth (plaque) feed on the sucrose to produce an acid, causing holes in your teeth (dental caries).
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What are the two different forms of sugar?
Intrinsic and extrinsic.
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What is intrinsic sugar?
Sugar found naturally in the cells of fruits and vegetables.
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What is extrinsic sugar?
Sugars you can see, those that are added to cakes, biscuits, desserts and sweets.
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Are intrinsic or extrinsic sugars less harmful?
Intrinsic sugars, as they are less likely to lead to tooth decay and are easier for the body to absorb.
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What are polysaccharides?
Complex carbohydrates formed from hundreds of glucose molecules strung together, that provide the body with energy.
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Where are starches found?
Grain products like bread, rice, cereals, pasta, and in some fruits and vegetables.
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Do sugars or starches take longer for the body to digest?
Starches.
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How do starches help to prevent obesity?
They provide a feeling of fullness for longer, helping to avoid over-eating.
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Do starches come from animal or plant sources?
All starches come from plant sources.
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What are the functions of starch of diet?
Adds bulk to our diet, provides fullness and the excess is converted to fat.
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What is fibre/NSP?
The non-digestible cellulose found in plant foods.
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How does fibre go through the body?
It passes through the digestive system, absorbing moisture and bulk.
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What does fibre help the body to do?
Push other food through the system and clean the walls of the intense of bacteria.
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What are the functions of fibre?
Holds water keeping faeces soft and bulky, prevents bowel disorders like constipation, lowers cholesterol and helps control body weight.
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What can extreme cases of little fibre lead to?
Diverticular disease where the lining of the intestine becomes distorted and inflamed.
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How many grams of fibre should we be eating a day?
No little than 18g.
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Do men or women need more fibre?
Women.
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What are the two types of fibre?
Soluble and insoluble fibre.
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What does soluble fibre do?
Slows down digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, controlling blood sugar levels, making us feel full quicker. It also reduces blood cholesterol level.
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What are some good sources of fibre?
Oats, peas, beans, lentils and most fruits and vegetables.
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What does insoluble fibre do?
Absorbs water and increases bulk, making it easy for faeces to pass through the digestive system.
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What are some insoluble fibre-rich foods?
Wholemeal flour, wholegrain breakfast cereals, pasta, brown rice and some fruits and vegetables.
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Does keeping the skin on fruits and vegetables provide more fibre?
Yes.
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What are the functions of vitamins in the diet?
Maintain health, prevent deficiency diseases, regulate cell repair, combat ageing, and process carbohydrates for energy.
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What are the two main vitamin groups?
Fat-soluble and water-soluble.
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Which fat-soluble vitamins are found in the fat in foods?
Vitamin A and D.
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How can fat-soluble vitamins be used?
They can be stored in the liver and used by the body when needed.
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What are water-soluble vitamins?
Vitamins that dissolve in water.
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What are two examples of water-soluble vitamins?
Vitamin B and C.
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Why is it important to eat a lot of foods containing water-soluble vitamins?
Because they aren't stored in the body.
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What is the function of vitamin A?
Keeps eyes healthy and improves night vision.
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What are some good sources of vitamin A?
Carrots, spinach, sweet potato, kale etc.
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What can deficiency of vitamin A lead to?
Night blindness.
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What is the function of vitamin D?
Helps build and maintain strong bones and teeth.
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What are some good sources of vitamin D?
Dairy products like milk and cheese, oily fish, liver and cereals.
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What can deficiency of vitamin D lead to?
Rickets, which is the softening of bones.
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What are the chemical names for the B vitamins?
B1 = Thiamine / B2 = Riboflavin / B3 = Niacin
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What is the function of thiamine?
Release of energy from nutrients and normal function of nervous system
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Good sources of thiamine?
Breakfast cereals, whole grains, meat, eggs, milk and some vegetables.
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What can a deficiency of thiamine lead to?
Slows growth and development, and beri beri in extreme cases.
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What is the function of riboflavin?
Normal growth, healthy skin and release of energy.
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Good sources of riboflavin?
Liver, kidneys, meat, milk, eggs and green vegetables.
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What can a deficiency of riboflavin lead to?
Poor growth rate, and skin and eye problems.
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What is the function of niacin?
Metabolism growth, energy release, healthy skin and nerves.
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Good sources of niacin?
Meat, poultry, fish, cereals, grains, dairy and pulses.
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What can a deficiency of niacin lead to?
Rough/sore skin, weakness and depression.
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What is the function of folic acid?
Formation of red blood cells and foetal development.
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Good sources of folic acid?
Liver, kidneys, whole grain cereals, pulses and dark green vegetables.
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What can a deficiency of folic acid lead to?
Tiredness and anaemia.
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What is the function of vitamin C?
Formation of connective tissue, helps wound healing, helps absorb iron.
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Good sources of vitamin C?
Citrus fruits, blackcurrants, strawberries, new potatoes, peppers and green vegetables.
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What can a deficiency of vitamin C lead to?
Spotty skin, swollen gums, loose teeth and scurvy.
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What is another word for vitamin C?
Ascorbic acid.
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What is the function of minerals?
Builds bones and teeth, control of body processes, part of body fluids and cells, and form part of enzymes and other important proteins.
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Which are the two most important minerals needed by the body?
Calcium and iron.
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What is the function of calcium?
Forms teeth and bones, blood clotting, muscle contraction and enzyme formation.
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Why would a woman who breastfeeds need high levels of calcium?
Developing children need a diet high in calcium, because their bones are growing rapidly.
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What happens if we don't get enough calcium?
Our body takes calcium from the bones, resulting in osteoporosis.
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What is osteoporosis?
A condition of weakening and thinning of the bones, most commonly in the elderly, especially in women.
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Why do we need iron?
It forms haemoglobin, which makes blood red, and it carries oxygen round the body to the cells.
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Where can our body store iron?
In the liver.
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Good sources of iron?
Red meat, kidneys, liver, eggs, bread and green vegetables.
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Function of sodium?
Maintains water balance and helps nerve transmission.
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Sources of sodium?
Cheese, bacon, smoked meats, fish, processed foods and table salt.
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Function of fluoride?
Strengthens teeth against decay.
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Sources of fluoride?
Fish, tea, drinking water and toothpaste.
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Deficiency of fluoride can lead to?
Tooth decay.
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How are calcium and phosphorus similar?
They both harden bones and teeth.
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How much of the body is made up of water?
65%.
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When does dehydration occur?
When more water is being lost from the body than is being replaced by drinking.
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Why is dehydration dangerous?
Their blood gets thicker and difficult to pump, so the heart stops because of over-strain.
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How can the body protect itself from dehydration?
Reducing its water output, such as the production of urine.
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How does someone lose water?
Sweating and losing water through breathing.
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Function of water?
Regulates body temperature, helps kidneys flush out harmful substances from the blood, by eliminating them through urine, and transports nutrients, oxygen and carbon dioxide round the body.
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How does sweating regulate body temperature?
Sweat evaporates and cools down, preventing heat stroke.
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What is healthy, balanced diet?
A diet that provides the correct combination of food and nutrients for optimum growth and health.
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How can we have a balanced diet?
Eat a mixture of foods, as foods rich in one nutrient balance the lack of that nutrient in another.
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What is the eatwell plate?
A pictorial food guide showing the proportion and types of foods that are needed to make up a healthy, balanced diet. It helps understanding and enjoyment in healthy eating.
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What is the maximum amount of salt we should consume each day?
6g.
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What should you base your meals on?
Starchy foods.
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How much should of our meals should starchy foods take up?
33% and should be eaten in every meal.
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Which vegetable does not count as one of your five-a-day?
Potatoes.
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How many servings of dairy products should you have a day?
2-3 servings.
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How many milliliters of milk is one serving?
200ml.
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How many grams of yogurt is one serving?
150g.
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How many grams of cheese is one serving?
30g.
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Card 5

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