food tec revision

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what is protein?
a macronutrient
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what is protein formed from?
chains of simpler units called amino acids.
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how may essential amino acids need to be provided by the diet?
8
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what functions does proetin have in our body?
growth,repair,maintenance + as a secondary energy source.
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give 6 animal sources of protein
1)meat, 2)fish, 3)poltury, 4)milk, 5)eggs, 6)cheese.
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name 6 plant sources of protein
1)soya, 2)nuts, 3)seeds, 4)pulses(eg lentils), 5)mycoprotein (Quorn), 6) TVP (texturised vegtable protein)
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what does the biological value for proteins mean?
the amount of essential amino acids present.
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how many of the essential amino acids does animal proteins contain?
all of them as they are HBV (high biological value)
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are mycroprotein (Quorn), + TVP (texturised vegtable protein) high biological value or low?
high
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are plant sources of protein high or low biological value?
low biological value (LBV) as they lack some essential amino acids. an ecxeption is soya though which i a plat protein which is hbv
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can proteins of LVB be eaten together to provide all essential amino acids?
yes it's called complementation.
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who is complememtation important too?
vegans + vegitariains
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what is excess protein used for?
energy
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name 4 groups of people that have a higher need for protein
1)babies + children - for growth. 2)adolsecents - for growth spurts. 3)pregnant women - for the growing baby, 4) nursing mothers - for lactation (milk production)
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what is a fat?
a macronutrient
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what is fat made up from?
fatty acids called glycerol
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name 4 functions of fat in the diet
1)provides concentrated energy, 2)source of fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E + K, 3)provides protection from major organs in the body. 4)a component in hormones.
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what can saturated fats increase?
the cholestrol level in the blood
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what can too much bad cholestrol lead too?
health problems.
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name 4 sources of cholesterol
lard, cream, cheese +coccunut oil.
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what can unsaturated fats reduce?
cholesterol in the blood
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give 4 sources of unsaturated fats
oily fish, nuts, seeds + avacados
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what is makingsolid fat from liquid oil called?
hydrogenation
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how are trans fats formed?
when oil goes through the proccess of hydrogenation to form a solid
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what can excess fat in the diet lead too?
weight gain
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what have trans fats been linked too?
health problems such as heart desies + some cancers.
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what can fat deficency in babies affect?
normal growth
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what can fat deficency result in?
poor supply of fat-soluble vitamins.
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when does denaturation occur?
when the structure of amino acids found in protein are altered. they cahnge shape or unfold becuase chemical bonds are broken.
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what things can denature protein in food?
heat, reduction og PH level, enzymes and mechanical actions.
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how do enzymes cause protein to denature?
through meat tenderisers
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how do machanical actions denature protein?
whisking egg whites - denatures protein by uncoiling + unfolding
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what is protein coagulation?
a type of protein denaturation
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give 2 examples of coagulated foods
1)egg custards, 2)quiches.
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is protein coagulation reversible?
no
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what is the scientific name for fiber?
non-starch polysacarides (NSP)
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what are the functions of dietary fiber?
helps food matter which pass through the intestines soft + bulky.
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what can dietary fiber be found in?
wholemeal bread, wholegrain breakfast cereals, porridge, potato skins.
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how much fiber should adults consume daily?
18g
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what can fiber deficency lead too?
constipation, diverticular desise (pouches form inside the inststines, which become infected with bacteria.
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what is energy required for?
help us grow, to keep the basic functions of our body, to be physically active.
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what do energy requirements depend on?
basic metabolic rate (BMR)
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what is BMR?
the energy needed by the body to pwer your internal organs when completley at rest.
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what does your BMR depend on?
age, gender + body size.
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what is malnutrition a result of?
under consumption of nutrients.
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define 'energy density'
the amount of calories or kilojoules a food contains per gram.
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what does goverment guildlines state?
that we need to take undertake 60mins of aerobic activity a day.
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what is reference intake (RI)
the reccomended amount of each nutrient that is required to eat daily.
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what is the healthy body mass index between?
18.5 and 25.
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what name2 functions of vitamin c in the body?
1)absorbsion of iron, 2)antioxidant (protects from pollutants in the enviroment)
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name 4 sources of vitamin c
potatoes, citrus fruits, kiwi fruit + blackcurrants.
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give some deficencies/excess of vitamin c in the diet.
weak conective tissue + blood vessels, bleeding gums + loose teeth, scurvy.
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what happens to vitamin c during cooking?
they dissolve because it is water soluble.
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give 2 examples of saturated fats.
lard + butter.
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what is shortening?
a proccess using fat that creates a characteristic short, crumbly texture
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what is shortening seen in?
short crust pastry, shortbrad, cookies ect...
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how does fat shorten a pastry mixture?
1)fat coats the flour grains, preventing gluten development, 2)the cooked texture is short and crumbly.
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what happens during the cooking of pastry?
1)the flour grains absorb the fat, 2)pastry changes from pliable to rigid (the gluten sets), 3)pastry turns golden brown
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what is plasticity?
the ability of fat to change properties over a range of tempreatures.
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what is aeration?
helps to make products have a light + open texture. fats aerate mixtures during beating or creaming with sugar.
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what happens during the preperation of a creamed mixture?
1)the fat + sugar are creamed together, trappuing air, 2)the mixture becomes pailer, 3)an air-in fat foam is formed.
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what are emulsions?
mixtures of liquid that do not normally mix eg:oil + water
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what is the proccess of emusification?
1)requirs agitation by wisking, by a mixer or food proccessor, 2)slow addition of oil to prevent the emusion spliting.
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what is the function of salt in the diet?
regulates the amount of water in our body, nneded to assist our body in the use of energy, helps control muscles + nerves.
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give 2 sources of salt
proccesssed foods + salt added at the table.
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excess + deficency of salt
deficency - muscle cramps excess- high blood pressure, heart desises + strokes.
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name the current guidelines for a healthy diet
-base your meals on starchy foods, eat lots of fruit + veg 5-7 portions a day, eat plenty of fishi including oily, cut down on saturated fats + sugar, eat less salt no more than 6g a day for adults.
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whta do the guideline from 5-18 year olds say about physical activity?
that we should do 60 minutes a day
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what does physical activity improve?
cardiovascular, bone health + to maintain a healthy weight.
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what is the best stratagy for a health + varied diet?
to plan a meal diary for the week, create a shopping list, then look for best buys.
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what are sugars + starches a type of?
carbohydrate.
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is dietary fiber a types of carbohydrate?
yes, however it annot be digested to provide energy.
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what are carbohydrates mainly produced by?
plants during the proccess of photosynthsis.
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what are monosacardies?
the simpliest form of carbohydrates structure.
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name 3 monosacardies and explain them
glucose- all other carbohydrate is converted into this in the body, galactose - found in the milk of mammals, fructose - found in fruit.
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what are disccharides?
more complex sugars that are formed when two monoscardies join together.
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what are polysacarides?
a carbohydrate structure made up from many monosacarides units joined together.
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what happens when sugars are digested?
they digest quickly and provide istant energy.
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name 4 sources of sugar.
honey, jame, sweets, chocolate.
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what happens to excess carbohydrates?
it is converted into fat + is stored under the skin; this is the main cause of obesaty. can cause type 2 diabetees, and lead to tooth decay.
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what is the function of calcium?
strenghens bones + teeth, bones are able to reach peak bone mass, growth of childern, clots blood after injury.
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give 3 sources of calcium
milk, green leafy veg, white bread.
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what is the function of iron?
supports the production of haemoglobin in red blood cells:this trasports oxygen aroynd the body.
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give 2 sources of iron.
red meats, green leafy veg,
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what is the function of flouride?
strenghens the enamel layer of teeth.
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give 2 sources of fluoride
salt water fish + tea.
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when does gelatinisation occur?
when starches (weatflour, cornflour ect) thicken liquids. the proccess needs heat + stiring (agitation).
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explain the proccess of gelatinisation.
1)strach grains absorb liquid, swell, burst(80 degrees) and finally thicken the sauce.2)stir to prevent lumps forming.
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name the 5 senses used to taste food + drink
1)taste, 2)aroma, 3)apperance, 4)texture, 5)sound.
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explain the stages of carrying out a controlled sesnsory analysis.
-invite people to be your testers, find a quite area to work, give each tester a cup of water to cleanse their palate, provide small samples of food, foods should be identified using codes or symbols so that tasters are not influenced by brand names.
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what are paired preference tests?
testers are asked to taste two similar products and are then aked which product they prefer.
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what is triangular testing?
three samples are tested but two are the same the aim is to find out if the tester can pick out which sample is differeent.
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what are ranking tests?
where people are asked to taste several products + award scores to decide on the order of preference.
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Card 2

Front

what is protein formed from?

Back

chains of simpler units called amino acids.

Card 3

Front

how may essential amino acids need to be provided by the diet?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what functions does proetin have in our body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

give 6 animal sources of protein

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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