Food Safety

name three things that can contaminate food
yeasts, mould and bacteria
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enzyme activity can cause changes in what?
flavour and colour
2 of 54
how can food be spoiled?
not covering food, dampness, after slaughtering/harvesting
3 of 54
what are microorganisms?
living things that can only be seen with a microscope e.g. yeasts, mould and bacteria
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what four things do microorganisms need to survive?
food, warmth, moisture, time
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at what temperature do yeasts grow best?
25-29 degrees celsius
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at what temperature do moulds grow best?
20-30 degrees celsius
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what is the temperature 'danger zone'?
5-63 degrees celsius
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what temperature should a fridge be?
0-5 degrees celsius
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what is the safe reheating/cooking temperature?
75 degrees celsius
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what is the boiling point of water?
100 degrees celsius
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what is the freezing point of water?
0 degrees celsius
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at what temperature should hot food be kept hot?
63 degrees celsius and above
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at what temperature should cold food be kept cold?
below 5 degrees celsius
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which type of food do yeasts spoil?
acidic foods, they can also grow in high salt and sugar concentrations
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name some foods that yeasts can spoil
jam, honey, fruit, yogurt, fruit juices
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which type of food do moulds spoil?
acid and alkaline foods, also in high salt and sugar concentrations
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name some foods that moulds can spoil
bread and bakery goods
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which type of food does bacteria spoil?
grow best in neutral conditions (worst in acidic conditions), foods that are high in protein and in moist conditions
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name some foods that bacteria can spoil
cooked rice and cooked meat
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what are the three types of bacteria
pathogenic, harmless and food spoilage
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what is pathogenic bacteria?
bacteria that causes food spoilage and food poisoning therefore illness
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what is harmless/useful bacteria?
bacteria that is used in food production and cannot cause food poisoning
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what is food spoilage bacteria?
bacteria that enables food decay, losing its aroma, flavour and texture
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what are enzymes?
biological catalysts (speed up reactions)
25 of 54
what is enzymic browing?
browning in foods that are bruised or cut open
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what are enzymes made from?
protein
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what two things can destroy (denature) enzymes?
heat or acids
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can freezer temperatures prevent enzyme activity?
no, they are not low enough
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what is blanching?
heating to destroy enzymes then quickly cooling to stop the cooking process
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what is oxidisation?
a chemical reaction as a consequence of a substance being exposed to oxygen
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which vitamins does oxidation cause the loss of?
water soluble vitamins: B group and vitamin C
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what are some methods of reducing oxidisation?
minimising prep time, starting with boiling water to reduce cooking time, using a lid to speed up cooking time, using cooking water with dissolved nutrients
33 of 54
how is mould useful in cheese production?
improves colour and flavour (e.g. Brie, Camembert and Stilton)
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how is mould used in sausage production?
ripens the surfaces, improving aroma, texture and shelf life
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moulds are a type of ?
fungi
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how is bacteria used in cheese production?
starter culture of bacteria + milk + rennet (an enzyme which increases curdling rates -separates milk into curds and whey) + salt
37 of 54
what is pasteurisation?
heat processing a liquid or food to kill pathogenic bacteria to make the food safe to eat
38 of 54
describe yogurt making
1. selected bacteria is added to previously boiled milk. 2. bacteria is allowed to multiply for several hours in warm conditions. 3. milk thickens (lactic acid denatures and coagulates)
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how is soy sauce made?
mixing soya beans other grains with a mould and yeast
40 of 54
who are the groups most at risk of bacteria contamination?
babies, elderly, people with weak immune systems (from illness or disease) and pregnant women (babies feed off mother)
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what is perishable food?
foods with short shelf lives needing to be refrigerated/frozen
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what are examples of perishable foods?
raw and cooked meats, milk, eggs, butter, cheeses, vegetables
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what is non-perishable food?
processed foods to prevent microbe growth
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what are examples of non-perishable foods?
canned foods, dried pasta, rice, cereals, flour, coffee
45 of 54
what is ambient temperature?
temperatures at 17-20 degrees celsius, aka room temperature, at which non-perishable food is stored at
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which foods do not require defrosting and why?
peas, chips, burgers, vegetables and fish - because they are best cooked from frozen as they can quickly defrost during the cooking process and still cook well
47 of 54
which foods need to be defrosted before cooking and why?
joints of meat, poultry, and bulky foods - because it is important that they cook evenly. If the foods are not properly defrosted, the core temperature will not reach 75 degrees celsius, needed to kill pathogenic bacteria
48 of 54
what should you consider when defrosting raw and frozen meat and poultry?
check for ice crystals, softening; with poultry, the free movement of the legs and wings
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why shouldn't you de-frost then re-freeze food?
because the food will have passed through the danger zone twice, increasing the risk of food poisoning as pathogenic bacteria will be able to rapidly multiply on two occasions
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what is the best before date?
an indication of when the quality of the food product will start to change, however it is still safe to eat (often used for non-perishable foods)
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what is the use by date?
an indication of when the food product may be unsafe to consume (often used for perishable foods)
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why is covering food after preparation important?
to keep it clean or prevent it from drying out (however it does not prevent contamination of bacteria)
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what are some methods of food covering?
food umbrellas, cling film, foil, clean tea towels (prevent pest contamination e.g. flies)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

enzyme activity can cause changes in what?

Back

flavour and colour

Card 3

Front

how can food be spoiled?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are microorganisms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what four things do microorganisms need to survive?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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