Food Preparation & Nutrition - Key Words & Definitions

Substance added to food in small amounts to improve its appearance or taste, or to keep it fresh for longer.
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To put air or gas into a substance
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Anything that moves freely in the air or is carried by air currents.
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Chemical substance that can stop or slow down the growth of micro-organisms.
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Substance that prevents oxygen from combining with oils and fats, and can be used to preserve foods.
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Very large group of micro-organisms, including some that can cause food poisoning and disease.
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To cook food in the oven in dry heat.
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A balanced diet contains all the nutrients necessary in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body.
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Best-Before Date
The latest date, by which food should be used, for it to be in its best condition
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Tasting food without being able to see it, so you are not influenced by its appearance or other factors.
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Cooking technique in which food is fried quickly and then cooked slowly with a small amount of liquid in a closed container.
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To increase a food's volume, texture or body.
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Bulking Agent
A substance such as water, cellulose fibre or oats that can be added to foods to improve volume, texture or body.
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When food is put into tins or cans, the air is removed, the tins are sealed and then heated to kill any micro-organisms inside.
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The process of gently heating food until the sugars in it turn brown.
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They form a large group of compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and that provide us with energy. They include starch, glucose and other sugars.
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A long, thin slice or potato fried in oil or fat and eaten hot.
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The change in state from a solution to a gel, in liquid foods that contain protein.
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A substance that consists of a base liquid containing tiny particles that mixed but do not combine.
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The thickness of a liquid, gel, batter or paint.
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The transfer of bacteria by bad hygiene or incorrect storage across food.
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Describes food that is cooked, chilled but not frozen, and then stored ready to be reheated and used.
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Critical Point
The stages in a food production process where contamination might occur, and where this can be controlled.
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The preservation of food by salting, drying or smoking.
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To remove frost or ice, or to melt something that is frozen.
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Degradation Degrade
The breaking down or lowering of the quality of something.
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The process of removing moisture from a food and is used as a method of preserving it.
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Difference Test
Involves comparing two sets of food samples by looking at them, tasting them and comparing their textures.
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Display-Until Date
Gives the date by which food has to be removed from display in supermarkets and shops.
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When liquids that do not readily mix together are combined.
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Fair Test
When all the conditions, apart from the one being investigated, are kept the same.
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The breakdown of sugars, by the action of yeast, into carbon dioxide, water and in some cases alcohol.
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A substance found in pulses, wholemeal bread, fruit and vegetable, that travels through the body as waste and helps digestion.
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A combination of the taste and smell of food.
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The selection, preparing, cutting, processing and cooking of foods.
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The correct use of safe practises in the handing, preparation and cooking of food, to prevent food-poisoning.
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An illness usually caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria.
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Food Safety Act 1990
An Act of Parliament that makes it an offence to sell food that is likely to be harmful or contaminated.
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A person who is involved in the design, analysis and production of food.
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Food-Grade Plastic
A material that is used for containers or packaging as it does not effect the food in any way.
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To evaporate the moisture from fresh or cooked foods to preserve it and seal it.
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To cook food in hot fat or oil.
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Functional Foods
Foods that have additives or nutrients added to them to give them special health advantages.`
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A colourless, water-soluble protein made from animal tissues such as bone and skin.
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It occurs when food is changed so that is has jelly-like consistency or appearance.
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Gelling Agents
Food additives used to thicken and stabilise various foods, and provide the foods with texture through formation of a gel.
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Genetically-Modified (GM)
Foods which have had characteristics change or altered at the molecular level to make them more attractive or cheaper to produce.
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Growth Hormone
A chemical within the blood which controls both growth and development.
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Additional Growth Hormone
Substances given to animals to help them grow bigger and faster before slaughter.
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Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points (HCCAP)
The system of identifying and controlling hazards during the production of food.
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Healthy-Eating Guidelines
Government suggested amounts of food and nutrients you should eat each day.
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Heat Process
A method of killing food born micro-organisms by heating food.
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Heat Treatment
Subjecting food to short high temperature bursts of heat.
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High-Fibre Drinks
Drinks containing soluble fibres and starches that help with digestion and be drunk by people who cannot of do not take enough fibre in other forms.
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The components of a recipe.
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To expose fruit and meat to a variety of beams such as gamma, x-ray and electron to kill the bacteria.
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A piece of meat that has been cut by the butcher ready to cook.
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To work a mixture by stretching the gluten strands which gives the desired texture.
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Food products made up of lots of thin slices of food.
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The compounds in food that provide energy.
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A minute organism which can be either beneficial or harmful to humans.
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To grind corn and other seeds into flour.
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Substances found in food which are important for health and wellbeing.
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Modified-Atmosphere Packaging
Packaging designed to prolong the life span of food by replacing air in the packaging with other gases.
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Modified Enzymes
Enzymes that have been altered to speed up chemical reactions.
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Modified Starches
Starches which have been altered to give it new properties.
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A fungal growth which grows on food.
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A fungus which can be used as a substitute for meat.
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A functional food which has been developed to have certain health properties.
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Fats, proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins that occur in food.
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A process of taking in food and using it for growth and maintaining health.
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Nutritional Analysis
A process of identifying the nutrients in various foods.
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Food from plants and animals that are grown without chemical of drugs.
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To take up oxygen in a chemical reaction.
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Pair Comparison Test
A test used to compare two products for a single property.
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Sterilisation of foods at temperatures that destroy harmful micro-organisms without significant changes to the appearance or taste of the foods.
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1. n, The skin surrounding a food. 2. v, To remove skin from a fruit or vegetable.
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To preserve food in a vinegar or salt solution.
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Something added to food to prolong its shelf life.
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A machine used to obtain juice.
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Primary Processing
The first stage, when raw materials are converted into a more usable form.
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Beneficial bacteria which can be used to support a healthy lifestyle.
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Foods cooked or altered to prolong their life.
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Any food which is grown.
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A nutrient found in many foods that is essential to growth and repair.
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Dried edible seeds of certain plants in the legume family.
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A type of protein-rich food made from an edible fungus and used as a meat substitute.
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Ready-Prepared Meal
Food which is ready to eat.
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A list of ingredients, with instructions for making a meal.
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A machine used to keep food between 0-5 degrees C.
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Roll Out
To use a rolling pin to produce a thin sheet of a food, usually pastry or icing.
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A small amount or part of a product used for testing.
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Liquid dressing or topping for foods.
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Secondary Processing
An additional processing that is applied to a product that has already been processed.
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Sell-By Date
The date that food is offered for sale in shops. Food is not displayed after the sell-by date.
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Sensory Descriptions
Terms used to describe the taste, smell and feel of a product.
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To change from liquid to a solid.
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The length of time a product is safe to sell or eat.
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The fat used with flour to make pastry.
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To remove lumps through a gauze.
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To keep food cooking slowly, below its boiling point.
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A mixture of several liquids or and liquid and a soluble acid.
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A protein derived from the beans of an Asian plant, used as a replacement for animal protein in certain foods.
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A complex carbohydrate that makes up most of the carbohydrate in the human diet.
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A liquid made from meat, fish, bones and vegetables.
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Taking a small amount of a substance into the mouth to test the quality or characteristics.
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Texture Vegetable Protein
A substitute for meat made from soya bean flour.
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Thermal Processing
Using heat to modify the properties of food such as destroying micro-organisms.
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A substitue for meat with a cheese like texture made from soya bean milk.
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Triangle Test
A test of three samples of food to find the odd one out.
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Ultra-Heat Treatment (UTH)
Involves heating the food to 135 degrees C and maintaining the temperature for a few seconds before rapidly cooling, in order to kill micro-organisms.
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Unit Operation
A singel unit in manufacturing.
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Unit Process
Any stage in manufacturing.
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Use-By Date
The date which food is at its best. After its use-by date it may still be safe to eat but is no longer at its best.
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Someone who doesn't eat any meat, poultry, fish or animal produce.
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Someone who does't eat any meat, poultry or fish.
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Natural substances that are needed in small amounts by humans.
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To aerate food using a whisk or fork.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


To put air or gas into a substance



Card 3


Anything that moves freely in the air or is carried by air currents.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Chemical substance that can stop or slow down the growth of micro-organisms.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Substance that prevents oxygen from combining with oils and fats, and can be used to preserve foods.


Preview of the back of card 5
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