Food Preparation & Nutrition - Key Words & Definitions

Additive
Substance added to food in small amounts to improve its appearance or taste, or to keep it fresh for longer.
1 of 118
Aerate
To put air or gas into a substance
2 of 118
Airbone
Anything that moves freely in the air or is carried by air currents.
3 of 118
Antibiotic
Chemical substance that can stop or slow down the growth of micro-organisms.
4 of 118
Antioxidant
Substance that prevents oxygen from combining with oils and fats, and can be used to preserve foods.
5 of 118
Bacteria
Very large group of micro-organisms, including some that can cause food poisoning and disease.
6 of 118
Bake
To cook food in the oven in dry heat.
7 of 118
Balanced
A balanced diet contains all the nutrients necessary in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body.
8 of 118
Best-Before Date
The latest date, by which food should be used, for it to be in its best condition
9 of 118
Blind-Tasting
Tasting food without being able to see it, so you are not influenced by its appearance or other factors.
10 of 118
Braising
Cooking technique in which food is fried quickly and then cooked slowly with a small amount of liquid in a closed container.
11 of 118
Bulk
To increase a food's volume, texture or body.
12 of 118
Bulking Agent
A substance such as water, cellulose fibre or oats that can be added to foods to improve volume, texture or body.
13 of 118
Canning
When food is put into tins or cans, the air is removed, the tins are sealed and then heated to kill any micro-organisms inside.
14 of 118
Caramelisation
The process of gently heating food until the sugars in it turn brown.
15 of 118
Carbohydrate
They form a large group of compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and that provide us with energy. They include starch, glucose and other sugars.
16 of 118
Chip
A long, thin slice or potato fried in oil or fat and eaten hot.
17 of 118
Coagulation
The change in state from a solution to a gel, in liquid foods that contain protein.
18 of 118
Colloid
A substance that consists of a base liquid containing tiny particles that mixed but do not combine.
19 of 118
Consistency
The thickness of a liquid, gel, batter or paint.
20 of 118
Contamination
The transfer of bacteria by bad hygiene or incorrect storage across food.
21 of 118
Cook/Chill
Describes food that is cooked, chilled but not frozen, and then stored ready to be reheated and used.
22 of 118
Critical Point
The stages in a food production process where contamination might occur, and where this can be controlled.
23 of 118
Curing
The preservation of food by salting, drying or smoking.
24 of 118
Defrost
To remove frost or ice, or to melt something that is frozen.
25 of 118
Degradation Degrade
The breaking down or lowering of the quality of something.
26 of 118
Dehydration
The process of removing moisture from a food and is used as a method of preserving it.
27 of 118
Difference Test
Involves comparing two sets of food samples by looking at them, tasting them and comparing their textures.
28 of 118
Display-Until Date
Gives the date by which food has to be removed from display in supermarkets and shops.
29 of 118
Emulsify
When liquids that do not readily mix together are combined.
30 of 118
Fair Test
When all the conditions, apart from the one being investigated, are kept the same.
31 of 118
Fermentation
The breakdown of sugars, by the action of yeast, into carbon dioxide, water and in some cases alcohol.
32 of 118
Fibre
A substance found in pulses, wholemeal bread, fruit and vegetable, that travels through the body as waste and helps digestion.
33 of 118
Flavour
A combination of the taste and smell of food.
34 of 118
Food-Handling
The selection, preparing, cutting, processing and cooking of foods.
35 of 118
Food-Hygiene
The correct use of safe practises in the handing, preparation and cooking of food, to prevent food-poisoning.
36 of 118
Food-Poisoning
An illness usually caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria.
37 of 118
Food Safety Act 1990
An Act of Parliament that makes it an offence to sell food that is likely to be harmful or contaminated.
38 of 118
Food-Technologist
A person who is involved in the design, analysis and production of food.
39 of 118
Food-Grade Plastic
A material that is used for containers or packaging as it does not effect the food in any way.
40 of 118
Freeze-Dry
To evaporate the moisture from fresh or cooked foods to preserve it and seal it.
41 of 118
Fry
To cook food in hot fat or oil.
42 of 118
Functional Foods
Foods that have additives or nutrients added to them to give them special health advantages.`
43 of 118
Gelatine
A colourless, water-soluble protein made from animal tissues such as bone and skin.
44 of 118
Gelatinisation
It occurs when food is changed so that is has jelly-like consistency or appearance.
45 of 118
Gelling Agents
Food additives used to thicken and stabilise various foods, and provide the foods with texture through formation of a gel.
46 of 118
Genetically-Modified (GM)
Foods which have had characteristics change or altered at the molecular level to make them more attractive or cheaper to produce.
47 of 118
Growth Hormone
A chemical within the blood which controls both growth and development.
48 of 118
Additional Growth Hormone
Substances given to animals to help them grow bigger and faster before slaughter.
49 of 118
Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points (HCCAP)
The system of identifying and controlling hazards during the production of food.
50 of 118
Healthy-Eating Guidelines
Government suggested amounts of food and nutrients you should eat each day.
51 of 118
Heat Process
A method of killing food born micro-organisms by heating food.
52 of 118
Heat Treatment
Subjecting food to short high temperature bursts of heat.
53 of 118
High-Fibre Drinks
Drinks containing soluble fibres and starches that help with digestion and be drunk by people who cannot of do not take enough fibre in other forms.
54 of 118
Ingredients
The components of a recipe.
55 of 118
Irradiate
To expose fruit and meat to a variety of beams such as gamma, x-ray and electron to kill the bacteria.
56 of 118
Joint
A piece of meat that has been cut by the butcher ready to cook.
57 of 118
Knead
To work a mixture by stretching the gluten strands which gives the desired texture.
58 of 118
Layered
Food products made up of lots of thin slices of food.
59 of 118
Macronutrients
The compounds in food that provide energy.
60 of 118
Microbe
A minute organism which can be either beneficial or harmful to humans.
61 of 118
Mill
To grind corn and other seeds into flour.
62 of 118
Mineral
Substances found in food which are important for health and wellbeing.
63 of 118
Modified-Atmosphere Packaging
Packaging designed to prolong the life span of food by replacing air in the packaging with other gases.
64 of 118
Modified Enzymes
Enzymes that have been altered to speed up chemical reactions.
65 of 118
Modified Starches
Starches which have been altered to give it new properties.
66 of 118
Mould
A fungal growth which grows on food.
67 of 118
Mycoprotein
A fungus which can be used as a substitute for meat.
68 of 118
Nutraceutical
A functional food which has been developed to have certain health properties.
69 of 118
Nutrient
Fats, proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins that occur in food.
70 of 118
Nutrition
A process of taking in food and using it for growth and maintaining health.
71 of 118
Nutritional Analysis
A process of identifying the nutrients in various foods.
72 of 118
Organic
Food from plants and animals that are grown without chemical of drugs.
73 of 118
Oxidise
To take up oxygen in a chemical reaction.
74 of 118
Pair Comparison Test
A test used to compare two products for a single property.
75 of 118
Pasteurisation
Sterilisation of foods at temperatures that destroy harmful micro-organisms without significant changes to the appearance or taste of the foods.
76 of 118
Peel
1. n, The skin surrounding a food. 2. v, To remove skin from a fruit or vegetable.
77 of 118
Pickle
To preserve food in a vinegar or salt solution.
78 of 118
Preservative
Something added to food to prolong its shelf life.
79 of 118
Press
A machine used to obtain juice.
80 of 118
Primary Processing
The first stage, when raw materials are converted into a more usable form.
81 of 118
Probiotic
Beneficial bacteria which can be used to support a healthy lifestyle.
82 of 118
Processed
Foods cooked or altered to prolong their life.
83 of 118
Produce
Any food which is grown.
84 of 118
Protein
A nutrient found in many foods that is essential to growth and repair.
85 of 118
Pulse
Dried edible seeds of certain plants in the legume family.
86 of 118
Quorn
A type of protein-rich food made from an edible fungus and used as a meat substitute.
87 of 118
Ready-Prepared Meal
Food which is ready to eat.
88 of 118
Recipe
A list of ingredients, with instructions for making a meal.
89 of 118
Refrigerator
A machine used to keep food between 0-5 degrees C.
90 of 118
Roll Out
To use a rolling pin to produce a thin sheet of a food, usually pastry or icing.
91 of 118
Sample
A small amount or part of a product used for testing.
92 of 118
Sauce
Liquid dressing or topping for foods.
93 of 118
Secondary Processing
An additional processing that is applied to a product that has already been processed.
94 of 118
Sell-By Date
The date that food is offered for sale in shops. Food is not displayed after the sell-by date.
95 of 118
Sensory Descriptions
Terms used to describe the taste, smell and feel of a product.
96 of 118
Set
To change from liquid to a solid.
97 of 118
Shelf-Life
The length of time a product is safe to sell or eat.
98 of 118
Shortening
The fat used with flour to make pastry.
99 of 118
Sieve
To remove lumps through a gauze.
100 of 118
Simmer
To keep food cooking slowly, below its boiling point.
101 of 118
Solution
A mixture of several liquids or and liquid and a soluble acid.
102 of 118
Soya
A protein derived from the beans of an Asian plant, used as a replacement for animal protein in certain foods.
103 of 118
Starch
A complex carbohydrate that makes up most of the carbohydrate in the human diet.
104 of 118
Stock
A liquid made from meat, fish, bones and vegetables.
105 of 118
Tasting
Taking a small amount of a substance into the mouth to test the quality or characteristics.
106 of 118
Texture Vegetable Protein
A substitute for meat made from soya bean flour.
107 of 118
Thermal Processing
Using heat to modify the properties of food such as destroying micro-organisms.
108 of 118
Tofu
A substitue for meat with a cheese like texture made from soya bean milk.
109 of 118
Triangle Test
A test of three samples of food to find the odd one out.
110 of 118
Ultra-Heat Treatment (UTH)
Involves heating the food to 135 degrees C and maintaining the temperature for a few seconds before rapidly cooling, in order to kill micro-organisms.
111 of 118
Unit Operation
A singel unit in manufacturing.
112 of 118
Unit Process
Any stage in manufacturing.
113 of 118
Use-By Date
The date which food is at its best. After its use-by date it may still be safe to eat but is no longer at its best.
114 of 118
Vegan
Someone who doesn't eat any meat, poultry, fish or animal produce.
115 of 118
Vegetarian
Someone who does't eat any meat, poultry or fish.
116 of 118
Vitamin
Natural substances that are needed in small amounts by humans.
117 of 118
Whisk
To aerate food using a whisk or fork.
118 of 118

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

To put air or gas into a substance

Back

Aerate

Card 3

Front

Anything that moves freely in the air or is carried by air currents.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Chemical substance that can stop or slow down the growth of micro-organisms.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Substance that prevents oxygen from combining with oils and fats, and can be used to preserve foods.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Home Economics - Health and Food Technology resources:

See all Home Economics - Health and Food Technology resources »See all Food Preparation & Nutrition resources »