Fishing methods and sustainable fisheries

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Purse seine nets
Used to catch schools of fish near ocean surface (e.g. tuna, sardines). Nets are lowered and encircle / close around fish, yielding a large catch (entire schools of fish trapped). May also catch non-target species (e.g. dolphins).
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Benthic trawling
Used to catch species on/near sea bed (e.g. cod, halibut). Nets drag along sea bed, causing damage to coral reefs. Physical damage can cause loss of habitats. Non-target species can be affected by habitat loss and/or be caught themselves.
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Factory ships
Large fishing boats which stay at sea for long periods of time. Freeze catches. Contribute to overfishing / depletion of fish stocks.
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Restriction by season
Closed seasons protect breeding stocks. Refuge areas allow fish populations to recover / increase.
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Restrictions on fishing method
Minimum mesh size (allows juveniles to escape); banning drift nets (which catch too many unwanted species); mandate use of rod and line to reduce number caught
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Restrictions on fishing intensity
Reduce number of boats allowed to catch fish; limit boat/engine size (to limit catch per boat)
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Gill nets
Indiscriminate, trapping a wide range of organisms. Marine mammals are trapped and become unable to reach surface, thus suffocating.
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Drift nets
Large and indiscriminate. Tend to catch many juveniles of target species. These can be thrown away, but most throw-backs die.
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Card 2

Front

Used to catch species on/near sea bed (e.g. cod, halibut). Nets drag along sea bed, causing damage to coral reefs. Physical damage can cause loss of habitats. Non-target species can be affected by habitat loss and/or be caught themselves.

Back

Benthic trawling

Card 3

Front

Large fishing boats which stay at sea for long periods of time. Freeze catches. Contribute to overfishing / depletion of fish stocks.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Closed seasons protect breeding stocks. Refuge areas allow fish populations to recover / increase.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Minimum mesh size (allows juveniles to escape); banning drift nets (which catch too many unwanted species); mandate use of rod and line to reduce number caught

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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