Fisher and the 4 basic principles of cognitive interview

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 29-05-16 09:26
What is the cognitive interview?
A set of instructions given by the interviewer to the witness to reinstate the context of the original event and to search through memory by using a variety of retrieval methods.
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What are the 2 principal assumptions that cognitive psychology relies on?
Memory of an event is made up of an interconnected network+that there should be several ways of getting to the same point. 2. Retrieval from memory will be more effective if at the time of retrieval context about original events can be reinstated.
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What are the 4 basic principles according to Fisher?
Interview similarity, focused retrieval, extensive retrieval, witness-compatible questioning.
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Describe interview similarity
Memory of an event is enhanced when the psychological environment is similar to the original one.Try to reinstate in the witness's mind the external (weather),emotional(feelings)+cognitive features experienced originally.
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Explain focused retrieval
A role of the interviewer is to generate focused concentration. No interruptions to the chain of thought+encouragement to try hard.
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Describe extensive retrieval
Witnesses encouraged to make as many retrieval attempts as possible.Even if they can't remember, encouraged to try from another angle. Even irrelevant details are requested.
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What is witness-compatible questioning?
Events are stored and uniquely organised for each witness.Successful retrieval reflects how compatible questioning is with witness's unique mental representation. Interviewers should be flexible+alter their approach for each witness.
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What was the aim of Fisher's research?
To test the cognitive interview in the field.
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What methodology did Fisher use?
Field experiment with actual interviews of real witnesses by serving police detectives.
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Who were the participants in Fisher's research?
16 detectives from the Robbery Division of Dade County, Florida. All were experienced with a minimum of 5 years with the division.
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Describe the procedure of Fishers study
1st phase - Detectives asked to record a selection of their interviews using standard techniques they usually used. Took 4 months and 88 interviews recorded, mostly relating to bag snatches or robberies.
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How were participants allocated?
Detectives then divided into 2 groups, 1 group was trained in CI techniques.
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Describe the training
Training was over 4 60 minute sessions. 7 detectives completed the programme+were used in results.
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What happened over the next 7 months?
More interviews were recorded by the 2 groups.
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Who were the post-training interviews analysed by?
A team at the University of California who were blind to the conditions.
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Who recalled more information from the witnesses?
After training the 7 trained detectives elicted 47% more information than before and 63% more than the untrained detectives.
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Describe the results found about accuracy
Laboratory-based research had shown no difference between the CI and the standard interview. 85% of statements being correct in all conditions.
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How was accuracy established in this study?
By corrobation with another source. in 24 cases with corrobating evidence (16 by pre-trained detectives+8 by post-trained) 94% of statements were corrobated.
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What was found to not be significantly different?
The time taken to interview witnesses was not significantly different, but CI's take longer.
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What was strong support obtained for?
The effectiveness of CI's in the field.
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Who was more information obtained from?
Witnesses to real events with no loss of accuracy and a minimal increase in time taken to interview them.
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What was wrong with the sample in Fisher's study?
It is small and may have been particularly well motivated to run the trial.
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What are the practical applications of CI?
Applied to other clinical settings. Therapists use it to develop medical histories. Used in UK by police forces.
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Card 2

Front

What are the 2 principal assumptions that cognitive psychology relies on?

Back

Memory of an event is made up of an interconnected network+that there should be several ways of getting to the same point. 2. Retrieval from memory will be more effective if at the time of retrieval context about original events can be reinstated.

Card 3

Front

What are the 4 basic principles according to Fisher?

Back

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Card 4

Front

Describe interview similarity

Back

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Card 5

Front

Explain focused retrieval

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