Finishes

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Brushing (physical)
Fabrics are passed through a series of wire rollers. The fabric is left soft and fluffy.
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Calendering (physical)
Fabrics are passed between heated rollers. This gives the fabric a smooth finish.
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Laminating (physical)
Layers of fabric are bonded together using heat or adhesive. Produces layers of fabrics with different properties.
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Biostoning (biological)
Uses a cellulose enzyme that act on the fabric to produce a 'worn' look and a softer feel.
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Biopolishing (biological)
Uses an enzyme which acts on the fabric which adds a sheen to the fabric, softens it and reduces pilling.
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Mercerising (chemical)
Involves the fabric being placed in a sodium hydroxide solution which causes the fabric to swell and become more shiny, absorbent and strong.
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Waterproofing (chemical)
Involves a silicon-based chemical being sprayed onto the fabric, it produces a water repellent layer.
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Flame-proofing (chemical)
Chemicals are applied to the yarn or fabric, which provides a protective layer that slows down the burning process.
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Anti-static (chemical)
Involves a chemical based product being applied to the fabric which stops the build up of electrostatic charge.
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Anti-felting (chemical)
An oxidative treatment is applied to the fabric and softens rough fibres preventing matting and felting whilst retaining warmth.
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Bleaching (chemical)
Uses a strong chemical that is applied to the yarn or fabric. It removes all natural colour but can weaken the fabric.
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Crease resistance (chemical)
Involves a resin being applied to the fabric and then heat-curled (set). Uses the layer of resin to prevent creasing.
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Shrink resistance (chemical)
Involves a resin based finish, or chlorine-based chemical treatment, being applied to the fabric. It stops the fabric from shrinking so it can be machine washed.
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Spark resistance
Protects against spark discharge. Used in industrial settings.
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Fire resistance
Fabrics can withstand certain fire conditions.
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Cut, tear, ballistic resistance
Fabrics designed to protect the user in industry or sporting events.
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Abrasion resistance
Prevents wear and tear of the garment.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Fabrics are passed between heated rollers. This gives the fabric a smooth finish.

Back

Calendering (physical)

Card 3

Front

Layers of fabric are bonded together using heat or adhesive. Produces layers of fabrics with different properties.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Uses a cellulose enzyme that act on the fabric to produce a 'worn' look and a softer feel.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Uses an enzyme which acts on the fabric which adds a sheen to the fabric, softens it and reduces pilling.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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