Fighting Disease

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What is a pathogen, and what do they cause?
Microorganisms that enter the body and cause disease. Pathogens cause infections diseases- diseases that can easily spread
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What are the two main types of pathogens?
Bacteria and viruses
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What is Bacteria?
Bacteria are very small cells which can reproduce rapidly inside your body. They make you feel ill by doing two things, damaging your cells and producing toxins(poisons)
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What are viruses?
They arent cells, they are much smaller. They replicate themselves by invading your cells and using the cells' machinary to create a copy of themselves. The cell will then usually burst releasing new viruses. This cell damage makes you feel ill.
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What helps defend things from getting in your body.
Skin, hairs and mucus in your respiratory tract(breathing pipework)
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What helps prevent microorganisms from getting into the body?
through cuts, small fragments of cells (called platelets) help blood clot quickly to seal wounds. If the blood contains low numbers of platelets then it will clot more slowly.
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What happens if something does get through to your body?
Your immune system starts to work, The most important part is white blood cells, They travel through your blood and crawl into every part of you, constantly patrolling for microbes. when they come across an invading microbe they have 3 lines of attac
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What is the first line of attack?
Consuming them, white blood cells engulf foreign cells and digest them.
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What is the first stage of the second line of attack?
(producing antibodies) Every invading cell has unique molecules called antitgens on its surface.
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What is the second stage of the second line of attack?
When your white blood cells come across a foreign antigen they will start to produce proteins called antibodies to lock onto and kill the invading cells. The antibodies produced are specific to that type of antigen- they wont lock onto any others.
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What is the third stage of the second line of attack?
Antibodies are then produced rapidly and carried around the body to kill all similar bacteria or viruses.
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What is the fourth stage of the second line of attack?
If the person is affected with the same pathogen again, the white blood cells will rapidly produce the antibodies to kill it- the person is naturally immune to that pathogen and wont get ill.
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What is the third line of attack?
Producing antitoxins, these counteract toxins produced by the invading bacteria.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the two main types of pathogens?

Back

Bacteria and viruses

Card 3

Front

What is Bacteria?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are viruses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What helps defend things from getting in your body.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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