Feminist Prespectives of crime and justice

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 05-12-15 13:18
For a key assumption of gender and crime, who do OCS suggest commit more crime and statistics?
-Men, -Men are four times more likely to commit crimes than females,
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For key assumptions of gender and crime, what are men more likely to do/be in crime?
They are more likely to be repreat offenders, have longer criminal careers and commit more serious crimes such as violence, sexual assults and murder,
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For key assumptions of gender and crime, do women still commit crime and if so what?
Yes women are involved in all types of crime, especially property offences such as shoplifting,
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For key assumptions of gender and crime, what trend are female crimes now?
They are increasing,
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For key assumptions of gender and crime, what do radical feminists suggest about the neglection of female crime?
Radical feminists such as Heidensohn suggests this is because of the domination of sociology by men.
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For key assumptions of gender and crime, therefore, what are sociological theories of deviance based around if not gender?
-Ethnicity, age and social class,
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What feminists largely accept OCS and provide explanations for why females are less criminally inclined than males?
-Functionalist and radical feminists,
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For example, what percent of how many offenders in the 2011 London riots were male?
-92% of the first 500 offenders,
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What are the 2 theories suggested for why females don't commit crime?
Theory 1- Functionalist Sex Role Theory, Theory 2- Radical Feminist- Patriarchal Theory,
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For Functionalist Sex Role theory, what do Functionalists such as Parsons argue?
That males and females are socialised differently,
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How are females socalised so they are less likely to commit crime, especially violent crime?
Females are socialised to be caring, compassionate, sensitive and sympathetic (often picked up from the 'expressive role' performed by females)
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How are males socialised so they are more likely to commit crime?
As they are socialised to be tough, risk taking and aggressive (often picked up by rejecting the 'expressive feminine role' of their mothers)
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What sociologist argues males lack of an 'expressive' role model leads to what?
-Cohen, -It leads to them turning to all male street subcultures as a source of masculine identity- Where status is earned through toughness, risk taking and delinquency,
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For theoretical evaluation of the theory, who has given support for Cohen's ideas?
-THe New Right, -They claim the absence of male role models in single parent families leads boys to turn to criminal street gangs for status and identity.
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For radical feminist's patriarchal theories, what sociologist claims women's lower crime rates can be explained with patriarchy?
Heidensohn,
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What does Heidensohn claim in this explanation about power and control and what does this mean about crime?
She claims that both in the private sphere (family) and public sphere (street, work, leisure) men exert power and social control over women. They have fewer opportunities to commit crime.
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Give an everyday example of Heidensohn's theories?
For example, many women find themsleves confined to the home carrying out domestic and childcare tasks so have limited chances to engage in street crime.
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What does Heidensohn argue controls women in public places?
The fear of male sexual violence against them,
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For empirical evaluation, what research into violent women would suggest what?
-Media research, -Suggests violent crime is in fact a significant and growing problem amongst females e.g. girl gangs and female domestic abusers.
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However, what approaches reject OCS by seeing them as under-representing women?
Social construction approaches,
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What does social construction theory suggest about crime?
The extent of crime and deviance by gender is socially constructed,
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What explanations do social constuctionists abandon and instead examine what?
They abandon attempts to offer causal explanations, -They examine the social processes that lead certain women to be under-represented and men over-represented,
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What is the first idea to suggest OCS are socially constructed?
Female crime (such as shopliftinf and prostitution) is less likely to be reported,
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What is the second idea to suggest OCS are socially constructed?
Chivalry Thesis- The male dominated criminal justice system is biased in favour of women. Female criminals are treated more leniently. E.g. they are less likely to be charged, convicted or punished than males,
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For empirical evaluation, who has supported social construction theories about cautions/
Ministry of Justice found females were more likely to recieve cautions from the police than males,
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For emprical evaluation, who has supported social construction theories about sentences for serious offences?
-Hedderman and Hough, -Claim female offenders are less likely than male offenders to recieve custodial sentence for nearly all serious offences.
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For empirical evaluation, who has criticised social construction theory, specifically the chivalry thesis?
Farrington and Morris,
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WHat have Farrington and Morris found about leniency?
They have found that in cases of theft, magistrates didn't treat women more leniently than men,
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For empirical evaluation, who has criticised social construction about the justice system and an example?
-Walklate, -Has found the criminal justice system to be patriarchal and biased against women. E.g. in **** cases, female victims often feel on trial rather than the offender.
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How do most feminists see OCS and why? Instead, what do they attempt to explain?
They largely reject OCS, -They believe females are under-represented in the statistics and attempt to explain in causal terms recent rises in female criminality,
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What two theories do they put forward to explain female rises in crime and which sociologists?
1) Carlen-Feminist control theory, 2) Adler- Liberation thesis,
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For theory 1, how does Carlen explain working class female crime in terms of?
A rejection of 'class and gender deals' ('deals' are the perceived rewards/ controls which prevent w/c women from offending.
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What are the 'deals' in class and gender deals?
'Deals' are the perceived rewards/ controls which prevent working class women from offending,
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What does are 'class deals' and what does Carlen argue women sometimes do and why?
'class deals' are the deal that if you work hard legitimately you will gain rewards, -Women can reject 'class deals' as they are unable to earn a decent living through working.
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Therefore, what does this suggest about crime?
It suggests crime is seen as a rational way of escaping poverty and feelings of social injustice,
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What are 'gender deals' and what does Carlen argue women sometimes do and why?
'Gender deals' are deals that if you play your role in the conventional family you will be rewarded. -Women can reject 'gender deals' as physical and sexual abuse occur in the family, leading many w/c women to mistrust oppressive patraiarchal family,
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Therefore, what does this suggest about crime?
That is is a rational choice for powerless women to escape,
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For theoretical evaluation, who has supported feminist control theory and what about changes in global economies?
-Naffine, -She claims changes in global economies have given rise to a 'pink-collar ghetto' of insecure, low wage, part time jobs. These women engage in petty crime because of economic necessity (poverty).
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For theory 2, what does Adler claim about crime and why women have become liberated?
He claims women have become liberated from patriarchy, female crime has increased and diversified,
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Give an example of what she suggests about the rise of what two crimes?
-White collar crime-The increase in this crime is linked to the increase in female participation in the workplace, -Female street crime-Has increased as illegitimate opportunity structures have become less patriarchal,
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What type of feminist claims about why there is a change in female aggression?
-Postmodernist females, -An increase due to shifting gender roles (more risk taking, more competitive)
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For empirical evaluation, what sociologist provides partial support with research into girl gangs and what?
-Tara Young, -She found that although girl gangs in the traditional sense of a male gang are rare in London (indicating illegitimate opportinity has not fully opened), there are plenty of girl only groups that engage in deviant behaviour.
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However, for empirical evaluation, who has criticised liberation theory and what did they say about working class female crimes?
-Chesney-Lind, -Points out most female criminals are w/c- the group least likely to be influenced by women's liberation.
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However, what theory begins to explain why males commit crime and what is their theory?
-Post-modern theories, -Masculinity,
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What sociologist argues crime is a way for males to achieve and express their masculinity?
Messerschmidt
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What masculinity do white-working class youths demonstrate and where?
Oppositional masculinity inside and outside of school- toughness, sexist, anti-school,
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For Black working class youths, when do they express masculinity and when do they achieve it?
-They engage in gang violence to express masculinity, -Turn to street robbery to achieve a subordinated masculinity,
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For white-middle class youths, what masculinity do they accommodate in schools, what masculinity outside and what masculinity do they accomplish with what crime?
-They form accommodating/ conformist masculinity in schools, -Oppositional masculinity outside e.g. drinking -White collar crime as adults to accomplish hegemonic masculinty,
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What has globalisation given rise to and why can these lead males to turn to violent street gangs?
-De-industrialisation (decline of manufacturing industries), -It leads to unemployment so turn to crime to regain their masculinity
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What sociologist found what about the masculinity of bouncers in Sunderland?
-Winlow, -Found that the expansion of 'night time economy' gave bouncers the opportunity to demonstrate their masculinity,
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What did Winlow say how Bouncers achieved their masculinity?
By having paid work (in an area of de-industrialisation/ high unemployment), violence, organised crime and looking big to maintain their 'hard reputation',
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What does what sociologist suggest about males commit crime for emotional thrills?
-Katz, -Argues that what many theories forget to link it the seductive or pleasure driven aspects of crime and the emotional thrills crime gives,
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What sociologist continues this argument and argues what type of men seek pleasure and why?
-Lyng, -Argues young males seek pleasure through risk taking aspect of deviant behaviort ('edgework')
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For theoretical evaluation, who has criticised masculinity theory for ignoring what structural causes of male crime?
-Left Realists, -They argue that by focusing on masculinity, the underlying structural causes of male crime are ignored- marginalisation, relative deprivation and subcultures.
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Fot theoretical evaluation, what theorists have criticised masculinity theory and instead what do they argue about hormonal explanations?
-Biological theorists, -They reject social explanations for gender differences and instead favour hormonal explanations such as high levels of testosterone in males.
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For gender and victimisation, what do trends show about dometic violence and sexual assults simply?
That females are more likely to be victims of domestic violence and sexual assults than males
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What sociologist found 1 in 4 women have been assulted by their partner at some point and how many more than once?
-Mirrlees-Black, -1 in 8
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Who are more likely to be the victims and statistics?
-Women, -99% of violence against women are committed by men,
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What feminist such as what sociologist provides what explanation for why more women are victims?
-Radical feminists, -Kelly, -Patriarchy,
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What do Radical feminists claim that violent crimes are the product of what and an example with domestic violence?
Of male power and control in families and society at large, -Domestic violence ise seen as an act that men commit against women who reject or resist their domestic role,
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What do radical feminists suggest about the impact and an example?
Such experiences impact a great feal in all women's lives. E.g. women fear crime more than men and as a consequences adopt various avoidance behaviours, such as not going out alone,
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For empirical evaluation, who has supported the view that dometic violence is a product of patriarchal relationships and what did they find?
-Dobash and dobash, -They found that domestic violence was often triggered by a husband's perception that his wife was challenging his authority or not carrying out her domestic duties,
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However, who has questionned radical feminists on empirical grounds by saying that domestic violence is the result of what?
-Wilkinson, -It is the result of the stresses that go with social inequality rather than patriarchy. E.g. insecure jobs, living on a low income and in overcrowded housing,
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To conclude, is female crime a problem and what explanations does it require?
-Female crime is a genuine problem in postmodern or late modern societies which requires casual explanation,
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To conclude,what feminists adress the causes in terms of what?
-Postmodern feminists, -In terms of changing gender roles and the interaction of gender and social class,
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To conclude, what is the negative with radical feminists but why are they still useful?
-Radical feminists ideas about gender may seem dated, their observations and explanations of domestic violence and sexual violence remain significant today,
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Card 2

Front

For key assumptions of gender and crime, what are men more likely to do/be in crime?

Back

They are more likely to be repreat offenders, have longer criminal careers and commit more serious crimes such as violence, sexual assults and murder,

Card 3

Front

For key assumptions of gender and crime, do women still commit crime and if so what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

For key assumptions of gender and crime, what trend are female crimes now?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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For key assumptions of gender and crime, what do radical feminists suggest about the neglection of female crime?

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