Female Reproductive System

  • Created by: Becca
  • Created on: 30-12-13 10:54
What is the histology of the *****? Which gland is situated in the *****?
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with melanin pigment. Vulvo-vaginal gland (Bartholin's gland) opens posterolaterally at the level of the hymen & is mucin secreting
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What is the histology of the ********? What type of nerve endings are situated here?
2 corpora cavernosa: erectile vascular tissue surrounded by fibrocollagenous sheath. Nerve endings are mainly Pacinian touch receptors
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What is the structure of the vagina?
Fibromuscular tube, 7-9cm, capable of marked distension & elongation. Forms a >90 degree angle with normal anteverted uterus. At inner end, vaginal tube forms a cuff around protruding cervix creating anterior, posterior & lateral fornices
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What is the histology of the vagina? (superficial -> deep)
Epithelial mucosa: non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelia, glycogen rich. Lamina propria. Sub mucosa: highly vascularised, elastic fibres for distension, circular/longitudinal smooth muscle. Adventitia: elastic fibres, irregular smooth muscle.
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What is not present in the vagina?
Glands! Cervical mucin & mucin from Bartholin's gland protects vaginal epithelia
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How is glycogen involved in the maintenance of vaginal pH?
Increase glycogen production by vaginal epithelium at ovulation. Breakdown of glycogen by commensal lactobacilli in vaginal cavitiy leads to production of lactic acid & acid pH. This restricts vaginal flora to acid loving bacteria & deters pathogens
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What does the uterine wall consist of?
Composed of an external serosa covered perimetrium, a middle muscle layer is myometrium (hormone sensitive, hypertrophy & hyperplasia during pregnancy) & internal mucosa layer, endometrium, which lines uterus & is under influence of menstrual cycle
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What happens to the endometrium if there is no pregnancy?
Involution of function layer, degeneration of secretory glands, rise in endothelin/thromboxane, vasoconstriction spiral aa -> ischaemia. Rupture of arteries, shedding of blood into uterus along with apoptotic/necrotic tissue. Basal layer remains
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What decidual endometrial changes happen?
Primary: bulky stroma, saw-toothed glands, increased secretions & blood vessels, coil to spiral arteries. Secondary: glands become more active, spiral arteries survive, remodel and supply maternal blood to the growing placenta & foetus
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What are some examples of menstrual irregularities?
Amenorrhoea: absence of menstruation. Menorrhagia: excessive bleeding, endo/myometrial disorder. Dysmenorrhoea: excessive pain, endo/myometrial disorder. Post-menopausal bleeding: important symptom of malignant disease
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What other bodily changes happen at ovulation?
Middle pain, rise in basal temperature & rise in uterine prostaglandins -> period cramps (prior to and during menstruation)
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What is the anatomy of the cervix?
Internal ostium/OS: junction between uterus proper & cervix. External OS: where cervical lumen opens into vaginal cavity. Endocervix: area between int & ext OS, distinctive epithelium. Ectocervix: part of epithelial lining protruding into the vaginal
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What is the histology of the endocervix?
Single layer of tall columnar mucus secreting epithelial cells & a basal layer of reserve cells. Endocervical mucus glands: deep invaginations of epithelium into cervical stroma, increase surface area of secretion of mucin (sperm can rest here)
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What is the function of the mucin produced by endocervix? How does the amount of mucin produced change during the menstrual cycle?
Lubrication, protection against bacteria. Proliferative phase mucin is thin, watery, more alkaline pH. Prior to ovulation its 10x in vol, less viscous, facilitate sperm movement. After pH more acidic, seals uterus to prepare for embryo implantation
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What happens during developments of squamous metaplastic epithelium?
Physiological replacement of everted columnar epithelium by squamous epithelium which is metaplastic: irritation of columnar epithelium by acid pH, proliferation of reserve cells, differentiate to immature squamous metaplastic epithelium, then mature
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How do Nabothian cysts develop?
Transformation zone squamous epithelium can grow over columnar epithelium of cervix, invaginations can be covered & lose their connection to surface. Continuing mucin secretion results in formation of small Nabothian cysts
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What are some consequences of squamous metaplasia?
Blocking of endocervical glands, formation of Nabothian cysts, development of abnormal epithelium & progression to cancer. Abnormal cells lose regular stratified pattern, high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, increased mitotic activity, can invade cervix
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What is the function & anatomy of the uterine/fallopian tubes?
Conveying ova from ovary to uterus, site of fertilisation. Normally open at infundibulum surrounded by fimbria adjacent to ovary. Ampulla is dilated region of tube. Sperm tends to stay at isthmus (opens into uterus). Fertilisation occurs in ampulla
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What is the histology of the uterine tubes?
Smooth muscle: inner is tight spiral, outer loose spiral, gives circular & longitudinal appearance respectively. Epithelial lining has invaginations called papillary mucosa, ideal for storing egg/sperm, sperm binding protein present on cell surface
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What is the histology of the fimbrae?
Finger-like projections of the fimbrae appear to be part of the mucosa "turned inside out" with the epithelium exposed to the peritoneal cavity
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What is the histology of the isthmus?
Mucosa: longitudinal folds lined with ciliated (near ovarian end, 60-80%) & non-ciliated (secretory, close to uterus) columnar epithelium. Muscularis: circular & longitudinal layer. Capacitation of sperm occurs at isthmus, gradual release of sperm
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What are Peg cells?
In the uterine tubes, effete (weak/exhausted) secretory cells, phenotypically altered secretory cells or reserve secretory cells
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What are some disorders of the uterine tube?
Tubal ectopic pregnancy: implantation in tube wall, placenta perforates tube, bleeding into tube/peritoneal cavity -> lower abdominal pain, severe blood loss & shock. Acute/Chronic salpingitis: bac infection, acute inflammation, scarring/blocked tube
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Card 2


What is the histology of the ********? What type of nerve endings are situated here?


2 corpora cavernosa: erectile vascular tissue surrounded by fibrocollagenous sheath. Nerve endings are mainly Pacinian touch receptors

Card 3


What is the structure of the vagina?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the histology of the vagina? (superficial -> deep)


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is not present in the vagina?


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