Female Development

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Gonads
The organs that produce the gametes
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Gamete
Mature male or female reproductive cell with a haploid set of chromosomes (produced by gametogenesis)
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Oocyte
Female gamete produced by oogenesis
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Germ cell
Sperm or oocyte, or their developmental precursors
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Week 3-7
PGCs appear in the epithelium of the yolk sac and proliferate by mitosis. They migrate to the genital ridges where the gonads are formed (gonadal ridges have secreting factors that act as chemoattractants)
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SRY
The gene on the Y chromosome that is expressed from week 7 onwards which triggers male development.
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Sex cord cells
These cells come in from the coelomic epithelium and they form the granulosa. They cluster around the PGCs
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PGC
When these cells reach the genital ridges, they are called oogonia. They are surrounded by the sex cord cells and the structure is called the primordial follicle
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Mesonephric
These cells come from the mesonephros and these form the vasculature of the ovaries and the theca cells
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Primordial follicle
A primary oocyte surrounded by a single layer of flattened granulosa which are then surrounded by theca cells
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Stra8
The gene which controls meiosis in the fetal period
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Polar bodies
These are formed after each round of meiosis by the oocyte. It ensures the oocyte remains large and has rich cytoplasmic contents to make up for the lack in sperm in the formation of a zygote
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Prophase I
The meiotic phase in which oogenesis is arrested in primary oocytes
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LH
The surge in this hormone at puberty allows meiosis I to re-commence, forming a secondary oocyte and a polar body
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Metaphase II
The meiotic phase in which oogenesis is arrested in secondary oocytes (still diploid)
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Ovulation
This occurs after the first meiotic division has been completed and the secondary oocyte formed. Cumulus oophorus loosens, increase in follicular fluid. Mature follicle ruptures and releases ovum from inside
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Fertilisation
This step allows the secondary oocyte to complete meiosis II and form the mature tertiary oocyte which is haploid
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Primary
The follicle which synthesises proteins needed for development post-fertilisation. The granulosa cells become cuboidal, theca cells and zona pellucida become visible. This is independent of the menstrual cycle
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Zona pellucida
A mesh-like structure fully of holes so the granulosa can be in contact with the egg. It prevents polyspermy and allows for proteolytic enzymes released from the acrosome to penetrate
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Secondary
The follicle where the granulosa proliferates and the theca cells form two distinct layers - interna and externa. For the follicles to develop any further, they are dependent on gonadotropins
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Tertiary
The follicle where the granulosa secretes follicular fluid into the antrum. The granulosa cells immediately outside of the ZP are called the corona radiata. Around those are the cumulus oophorus which form a stalk-like structure
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GnRH
Releasing hormone from the hypothalamus which acts on the anterior pituitary to release LH and FSH. Released at puberty and is pulsatile (60-90 mins)
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Kisspeptin1
A neuropeptide transmitter which is synthesised from the KISS1 gene. It induces puberty
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FSH
Hormone which acts on the ovary and stimulates the development of follicles
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LH
Hormone which acts on the ovary and stimulates follicle maturation, ovulation and development of the corpus luteum)
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Corpus luteum
The remains of the follicle after ovulation. Releases progesterone.
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hCG
Hormone released from trophoblast cells of the embryo. Binds to receptors on lutein cells to maintain the corpus luteum
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Oestradiol
Dominant oestrogen from puberty to menopause
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Oestriol
Dominant oestrogen during pregnancy
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Oestrone
Dominant oestrogen post-menopause
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Oestrogen production
Theca cells produce testosterone which diffuses into the granulosa cells. These have the aromatase enzyme which catalyses conversion to oestrogen (LH increases cholesterol uptake by theca cells; FSH increases aromatase activity)
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Oestrogen
Hormone for: growth of body and sex organs, development of SSC, follicle maturation, thinning of cervical mucous, preparation of endometrium for pregnancy
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Progesterone
Hormone produced by the corpus luteum and then the placenta. Maintains the endometrium for pregnancy
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Menses
Low levels of oestrogen and progesterone trigger menstruation. Hypothalamus secretes GnRH, so LH and FSH levels are relatively low
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Proliferative phase
Oestrogen levels increase, suppressing FSH levels but increasing LH. Ovulation occurs.
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Secretory phase
Corpus luteum forms. Granulosa becomes large lutein cells and secrete progesterone and oestrogen. LH and FSH levels decrease. Corpus luteum deteriorates without hCG, so oestrogen and progesterone levels decrease
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Histiotrophic nutrition
During first 6 weeks of pregnancy, progesterone acts on the endometrium, causing it to be secretory and glandular (decidualised). These secretions nourish the embryo until placenta takes over
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hPL
Hormone produced by trophoblast cells of the embryo - levels rise as hCG falls. Decreases insulin sensitivity, to increase maternal blood glucose
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Menopause
Over 50 and there has been 12 months of amenorrhoea or under 50 and 24 months of amenorrhea. Mood changes, loss of libido, hot flushes, vaginal dryness, low oestrogen and high LH/FSH
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Hormonal
Contraception which mimics the hormones during the secretory phase (high progesterone, moderately high oestrogen)
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Morning after pill
Pill with higher doses of hormones than normal contraceptives - progesterone only. Prevents/delays ovulation and alters the environment of the uterus
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Barrier
Contraception which blocks the sperm and the egg from meeting. Can be combined with spermicides
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IUDs
Long acting contraception consisting of a copper coil inserted into the uterus, inducing a foreign body response. Copper is spermicidal
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Permanent
Contraception involving tubal ligation and vasectomy
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Natural
Contraception using: withdrawal, rhythm method, fertility awareness method, natural family spacing and abstinence
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Hormone tests
FSH/LH = day 3. Progesterone = day 21
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Progesterone challenge test
If you don't know "day 1" of menses: give a synthetic form of progesterone for 5 days, causing the breakdown of endometrium after stopping. This will be day 1
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PCOS
Polycystic ovarian syndrome: oligomenorrhea, polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism
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Clomiphene
Fertility treatment: an oral anti-oestrogen taken for 5 days increases FSH levels, developing more follicles. Risks: multiple ovulation
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IUI
Intrauterine insemination: injections of prepared sperm into the uterine cavity using a catheter when woman is ovulating. Low success rate, high chance of multiply pregnancy
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IVF
Infertility treatment: stimulation to produce many eggs which are then mixed with 100,000 motile sperm and left to fertilise
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ICSI
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: 1 sperm injected into one egg, only used if IVF fails
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Ovarian stimulation
Suppress pituitary by using a GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist, give rFSH to stimulate ovary for multiple follicles, trigger hCG, inseminate, transfer embryos, luteal support
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Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Condition which results in enlarged ovaries and fluid build up in the ovarian cavity. A risk of IVF and ICSI
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Mature male or female reproductive cell with a haploid set of chromosomes (produced by gametogenesis)

Back

Gamete

Card 3

Front

Female gamete produced by oogenesis

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Sperm or oocyte, or their developmental precursors

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

PGCs appear in the epithelium of the yolk sac and proliferate by mitosis. They migrate to the genital ridges where the gonads are formed (gonadal ridges have secreting factors that act as chemoattractants)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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