Farming

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What does intensive farming methods aim to produce?
Intensive farming methods aim to produce as much food as possible from the available land, plants and animals. These methods use chemicals like pesticides to kill pests that damage crops or livestock so more food is produced.
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What are the 4 chemicals used in intensive farming?
1. pesticides 2. insecticides 3. fungicides 4. herbicides
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What are pesticides used to do?
Pesticides — used to kill pests i.e. any organism that can damage crops or farm animals.
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What are insecticides used to do?
Insecticides (types of pesticide) — used to kill insect pests.
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What are fungicides used to do?
Fungicides (types of pesticide) — used to kill fungi.
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What are herbicides used to do?
Herbicides — used to kill weeds which compete with crops for water and nutrients.
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Why does care need to be taken with pesticides? (3)
• they can harm other organisms (non-pests) • they can build up (accumulate) in food chains, harming animals at the top. • some pesticides are persistent — they stay in the food chain for years.
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What can intensive farming increase productivity by?
Intensive farming can increase productivity by keeping animals in carefully controlled environments where their temperature is controlled and movement is very limited.
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What is four examples of keeping animals in certain conditions?
• battery farming • glasshouses • hydroponics • fish farming.
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What can keeping animals in bad conditions raise?
this can raise ethical dilemmas. Some people find this morally unacceptable because the animals have a very poor quality of life.
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What does Keeping animals warm and penned up inside (battery farming) so that they can't move do?
Keeping animals warm and penned up inside (battery farming) so that they can't move improves the energy transfer by reducing the amount of energy lost at each stage of the food chain.
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How is battery farming cruel to hens?
But it's very cruel to the hens as they are kept in such small, confined spaces, and suffer health problems as a result
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by reducing energy transfer to pests what does intensive farming improve?
By reducing energy transfer to pests, intensive farming improves the efficiency of energy transfer in food chains.
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What does organic farming methods aim to do?
By reducing energy transfer to pests, intensive farming improves the efficiency of energy transfer in food chains.
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What does Organic farming methods include?
• using natural fertilisers like animal manure or compost • growing nitrogen-fixing crops (e.g. peas or clover) • rotating crops to maintain soil fertility • avoiding chemical pesticides by weeding • varying seed planting times to discourage pest
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What are two advantages of organic farming? (food crops and soil erosion)
• Food crops and the environment aren't contaminated with artificial fertilisers or pesticides. • Soil erosion is limited, and fertility is maintained through the use of organic fertilisers.
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What are two advantages of organic farming?(biodiversity and space)
• Biodiversity is promoted because hedgerows and other habitats are conserved. • Livestock have space to roam.
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What are four disadvantages of organic farming?
• It's less efficient because some crops are lost to pests and diseases. • Organic fertilisers take time to rot and they don't supply a specific balance of minerals. • It is expensive. • More space is needed.
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What is hydroponics?
Hydroponics is a way of growing plants without using soil.
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How are plants grown using hydroponics?
The plants are grown with their roots in a solution containing the minerals needed for growth. This growing method is useful for greenhouses or areas which have very thin or barren soil.
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What is a plant that can be grown hydroponically in greenhouses?
tomatoes
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What are the two advantages of hydroponics?
• The mineral levels added to the solution can be carefully controlled and adjusted to the type of plant. • There is a reduced risk of the plants becoming diseased.
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What are the two disadvantages of hydroponics?
• The plants have to be supported as they have no anchorage for their roots. • Expensive fertilisers are needed to supply the plant with minerals.
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What is biological control?
Some farmers prefer to introduce a predator, instead of using a pesticide, to reduce the number of pests. This is called biological control.
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What is it important to remember when using biological controls or pesticides?
it's important to remember that when biological controls or pesticides are used to get rid of pests, the effect on the rest of the organisms in the food chain or web must be considered.
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What is an example of the knock on effect biological control can have?
if a pest control was to target rabbits, this would have an effect not only on the rabbits, but also on hawks and foxes (who eat rabbits).
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What are two advantages of biological control? (species-specific and repeating)
The predator selected only usually attacks the pest (i.e. it's species-specific). • Once introduced, the predator can have an impact over many years, so repeating treatment isn't required.
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What are two advantages of biological control? (resistant and chemical pesticides)
• The pest can't become resistant to the predator (unlike pesticides). • No need for chemical pesticides.
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What are the four disadvantages of biological control?
• The pest is reduced but it isn't completely removed. • The predator may not eat the pest or it may even eat useful species. • The predator may reproduce out of control. • The predator may leave the area.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the 4 chemicals used in intensive farming?

Back

1. pesticides 2. insecticides 3. fungicides 4. herbicides

Card 3

Front

What are pesticides used to do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are insecticides used to do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are fungicides used to do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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