families and households theorists

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Talcott Parsons
-Expressive and instrumental roles. -division of labour is based on biolgical differences.
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Talcott Parosn functions of the family
- Primary socialisation of children. -Stablisation of the adult personality.
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Elizabeth Bott
Segregated and Joint Conjugal Roles
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Murdock's functions of the family
-reproduction. -sexual favours. -socialisation. -economic support
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Anne Oakley
arues the housewife role has become the dominant role for married women
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Young and Wilmott- family view
they're becmoning more symetical
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Young and Willmott- reasons for symetrical families becoming more common
-geographical mobility, changes in the position of women, labour saving devices
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Mary Boulton1983
found less than 20% of fathers took major roles in childcare
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Man-Yee Kan 2001
women who were better paid, educated and younger do less housework. every £10k increase in pay womens domestic labour hours dropped by 2 hours
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Gershuny 1994
working women do less house work. women not in work do 83% of housework, in part time work 82%, in full time work 73%
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Oriel Sulivan 2000
Found and increase in male domestic labour, even finding couples with an equal division is on the increase including men doing traditional 'womens' jobs
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Rosemary Crompton 1997
see's the reason fore males doing more domestic work as due to women's earning poer increases so does mens domestic labour, though sees as long as earnings are unequal betwn men and women so will the domestic division of labour.
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Silver and Schor
2 developments reducing the housework burdon for women; -commercialisation of housework e.g ready meals, fast foods. - women working they can afford to but these goods and services
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Ferri and Smith 1996
study of over 1500 parents shown that only 4% of fathers took the main responsibility for childcare
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Lydia Morris 1990
Found that men who had sufffered a loss of the masculine role through the loss of their jobs avoided domestic jobs as they were seen as womens jobs.
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Ramos 2003
Found that families where the man is not in paid work but the women is, male domestic labour is equal to that if their partner (around 19 hours)
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Duncombe and Marsden1995
Women are expected to do a triple shift of paid work, domestic work amd emotional work.
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Gillian Dunne1999
The division of labour continues due to ingrained gender scripts. Whereas in lesbian couples she found more symmetry
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Weeks 1999
same sex relationships offer greater pssibilities of equaity because the division of labour is open to negotiation.
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Barrett and Mcintosh 1991
-men benifit more from womens domestic labour than they give in ecomnomic supprt, - any economic support men give ussually come with strings attached, - men ussually make decisions about buying important items
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Hilary Graham1984
over half the women she studied who were lving on benifits after a divorce said their children were better off
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Pahl and Volger1993
2 types of control over family income; -Pooling where bothe partners have access to income andjoint responsibility for expenditure
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Elaine Kempson
found that amung low-income families, women denied their own needs even skipping meals to make ends meat
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Irene Hardill 1997
found that imporant decisions were ussually either taken by the man alone or jointly and that his career took priority when deciding whether to move house for a new job
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Edgell's 1980
sudy of profesional couple found that; very important decisions were taken by the husband alon or jointly with him having the final say, imporatn decsions were tkane jointly and seldom by the wife, less imprtant decisions were ussually made by the wi
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British Crime Survey 2007`
domestic violence counts for almost one sixth of all violent crime
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Mirrlees Black1999
-most victims of domestic violence are women. - 1 in 4 women have been assaukted in their lifetime. -99% of all incidents against women are committed by men
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Coleman 2007
found that owmen were more likely than men to have experiences intimate violence acrosss all f types of abuse- patner abuse, family abuse, sexual asault and stalking
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Dobash and Dobash 1979
found that violent acts could be set off by what a husband saw as a challenge to his authority such as a wife asking why he was late home.
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Stephanie Yearnshire 1997
found on average women syffer 35 assaults before making a report.
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David Cheal 1991
the reluctance to prosecute against domestic violence is due to the police are not prepared to become involved in family matters.
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Millet and Firestone 1970
argue that all societies are found upon patriarchy
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Robertson Elliot 1996
rejects the radical feminist claim that men benifit from violence against women, not all men are aggressive and men are also vitims of domestic violence
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Diana Leonard
though polices such as maternity leave are there to help women it reinforces patirarchy by suggesting women should look after infants not the fathers
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Arber and Ginn 1995
middle class women may be able to affprd childcaee but most working class cannot. as a result they remail trapped in a vicous circle of childcare responsibilities and low paid, part time work.
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Hetherington 1993
shows that sex-typing of domestic taske remain strong. For example women are 30 times more likely to have been the last person to do the washing whereas me are 4 times more likely to be the last person to wash the car.
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Wilkinson 1996
-Domestic vilence is a result of strss cause by social inequalities
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Ronald Fletche
Argues that welffare state supports the family in perfomring its functions more effectively e.g NHS- better treatment when ill
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The future foundation 2002
75% of women do less domestic work than their mothers did, 60% of men do more domestic work than their fathers did
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Jane Pitcher 1995
notes the most important fearue of the modern idea of chilhoof is seperateness. childhood is seen as a clear and distinct life stage and cildren have a seperate status than adults.
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Ruth Benidict 1934
argues that children in simpler, non-industrial societies are generally treated differently; they take pesonsilbility from an early age, less value on obidience to adults, their sexual behaviour is often viewed differently
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Samantha Punch 2001
study of childhoos in rural Bulivia found that once children are around 5 they are expected to take responsilities in the home and community without hesitation
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Lowell Homles 1974
study of Samoan villiage found that too young was never given as an excusefor not permitting a child to undertake a paticular task. if a child thinks they can handle it parents do not object.
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Firth 1970
found amung the Tikopia Islanders of the South-Pacific, doing what you are told by and adult is not a right to be exopected by the adult
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Malinowski 1957
found that amung the Trobrand Islanders of the south-west oacific adults took an attitude of tolerance and amused interest to childrens sexual explorations and activity
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Aries 1960
in the middles ages the idea of chldhood did not exist, they were seen and no different to adults once they had passed the stage of depency
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Shorter 1975
in the middles ages high death rates encouraged indifference and neglect espcially towards infants, it was common for parents ton give a child the same nae as a recently deceased sibling, to call the baby 'it' and to fotget how many children they had
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Pollack 1983
argues that it is more correct to say that the middle ages just had a different notion of childhood than what we have today
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Hillman 1993
boys are more likely than girls to be allowed to cross or cycle on roads, use buses and stay out after dark
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Bhatti 1999
found that ideas of family honour could be a restriction particularly on the behaviour of girls
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Woodroffee 1993
children of unskilled manual workers are over 3 times more likely to suffer from hyper activity, over 4 times more likely to experience conduct disorders than the children of proffessionals
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Howard 2001
Children born intp poor families are more likely yo die in infancy, suffer long standing illnesses, to be shorter in height, to fall behind in school and to be put on the child protetion register
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Firestone and Holt
argue that many of the things that march of progresss writers see possitively are new forms of oppression and control. e.g. as children cannot go into paid work in seperates them from adults and makes them dependent
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Cunningham 2007
found that the distance that children are allowed to travel from home alone has shrunk to one ninth the size it was 25 years ago
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Katz 1993
describes how rural sudanese children roam freely both within the villiage and for several kilometres outside it.
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Gittens 1998
uses the term 'age patriarchy' to desicribe the inequalities between cjildren and adults
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Postman 1994
childhood is dissapering at a dazzling speed, he points trends towards giving children the same rights as adults, the disaperence of tradition childhood games, the growing similarities of adult and child clothing
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Opie 1993
argues that childhood is not disapearing. Based on a lifetime of research into childrens games, rhymes and songs argues that there is strong evidence of the existence of a seperate childrens culture over many years
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Margi and Dixon 2006
Drawing on recent studies, report that UK youth are at the top of internationa leagues tables for obesity, self-harm, drug & alcohol abuse, violence, early sexual experiece and teenage pregnancy
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Jens Bonke 1999
Found that girls do more domestic labout epecially in lone parent families where they do 5 times more than boys
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Palmer 2006
'Toxic childhood' argues that rapi technological and cultural changes in the past 25yrs have damaged childrens physical, emotional an intellectual development. these are things likje junk food, computer games and emphesis on testing in education.
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Brannen 1994
study of 15-16yr olds found that Asian parents were more likely than others to be strict towards their daughters
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Micheal Anderson 1980
Found that extended families benifits outwieghed the costs in the 19th century such as grandparents taking childcare responsilbities.
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Germaine Greer 2000
wants the creation of female or matriarchal households as an alternative to ther hetrosexual family
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N.L Tranter 1996
over 3/4 of the decline in death rates from 1850-1970 is due to the fall in deaths from infectious deseases
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- Primary socialisation of children. -Stablisation of the adult personality.


Talcott Parosn functions of the family

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Segregated and Joint Conjugal Roles


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Card 4


-reproduction. -sexual favours. -socialisation. -economic support


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Card 5


arues the housewife role has become the dominant role for married women


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