Families and Households

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Who talked about instrumental and expressive roles?
Parsons
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What is the instrumental role?
Traditionally the husbands role geared towards achieving success to provide for the family. He is the breadwinner.
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What is the expressive role?
Traditionally the wife has this role. Geared towards primary socialisation of the children and meeting the families emotional needs.
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What does Parson's argue about these roles?
The division of labour is based on biological differences. Women 'naturally suited to the nurturing role and men that of the provider.
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Who talked about Joint and Segregated conjugal roles?
Bott.
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What are Joint Conjugal roles?
Where the couple share tasks such as housework and childcare and spend their leisure time together.
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What are Segregated Conjugal roles?
Where the couple have separate roles: a male breadwinner and a female homemaker as in parsons instrumental and expressive roles. Their leisure activities are usually separate too.
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Who did a study on Bott's Conjugal roles?
Young and Willmott- Did a study of traditional working class extended families in Bethnal Green in the 1950's. Men and women took on parsons instrumental and expressive roles and Botts conjugal roles.
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What is a symmetrical family?
The roles of husband's and wives although not identical are now much more similar.
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Who studied symmetrical families?
Young and Willmott- They take the 'march to progress view'-Women now go out to work, men now help with childcare and housework, couples spend their leisure time together.
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What did young and willmott find when they studied symmetrical families?
More common in younger couples those who are geographically and socially isolated and affluent. e.g. Couples who moved away from London living away from extended family and workmates were more likely to have a symmetrical relationship.
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What are some of the major social changes that have taken place in the past century?
Changes in women's position, Geographical mobility, new technology, Higher standards of living.
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What is the feminist view of housework?
Feminists reject the 'march to progress' view. Patriarchal society.
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What did Oakley argue about young and willmott's study of symmetrical family?
Husbands helped their wives 'at least once a week' She argues that young and willmotts study was exaggerated.
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What is the commercialisation of housework?
Goods and services that housewives previously had to produce themselves are now mass produced and supplied by supermarkets and fast-food outlets, this reduces the amount of domestic labour that needs to be done.
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Who talked about the commercialisation of housework?
Silver and Schor- The burden of housework on women has decreased- Led to the death of the 'housewife role'.
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What is the dual burden?
When a person is responsible for two jobs, usually applied to women who are in paid work but are also responsible for domestic labour.
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What is emotion work?
The work involved in meeting the emotional needs of other people. E.g. looking after a sick child involves responding to emotional and physical needs. This can also be known as the triple burden- Housework, Paid work and emotion work.
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What are gender scripts?
These are expectations/norms that set out the different gender roles men and women in heterosexual couples are expected to play.
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Who talked about gender scripts?
Dunne.
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What did Dunne say about gender scripts with Lesbian couples?
Their relationship is equal and share housework and childcare equally, View childcare positively.
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Who talked about resources and decision making in households?
Barrett and McIntosh- Men gain more from women's domestic work than they give back in financial support, men usually make the decisions about spending on important items.
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Who talked about Pooling and Allowance systems?
Pahl and Vogler.
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What is pooling?
Where both partners have access to income ad joint responsibility for expenditure. E.g. a joint bank account. This is more common in couples that both work full time.
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What is an allowance system?
Where men give their wives an allowance out of which they have a budget to meet the family's needs, with the retaining surplus income for himself.
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What are the groups at risk of domestic violence?
Children and young people, Those in the lowest social classes, those who live in rented accommodation, those on low incomes/financial difficulties.
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What is meant by child as a social construct?
Something created and defined by society.
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What did Pilcher say the most important feature of childhood was?
Separateness- Seen as a clear and distinct life stage. This is emphasised in several ways; through laws, the way we dress, products, services specially for children, toys, food, books, entertainment.
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What did Benedict argue about cross-cultural differences in childhood?
That children in simpler non-industrial societies are generally treated differently from their modern western counterparts.
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What did punch study to back up Benedict's idea?
Children take on responsibilities from an early age- study of childhood in rural bolivia found that when children turn 5 they are expected to take on work responsibilities.
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Who talked about Historical differences in childhood?
Aries- 'the idea of childhood did not exist' Children were in effect mini-adults. Aries uses works of art as evidence. The paintings show children and adults dressed the same and working and playing together.
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What did shorter argue about historical differences in childhood?
That high death rates encouraged neglect towards children. It was not uncommon for parents to give a newborn the name of a recently dead sibling. And refer to them as 'it'
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What did Aries say was beginning to happen in the 13th century?
Elements of modern notion of childhood gradually began to emerge- Schools became specialised for the young, there was a clear distinction with clothing emerging,
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What are some of the reasons for changes in the position of children?
Laws restricting child labour, The introduction of compulsory schooling in 1880, Child protection, children's rights, declining family size and lower infant mortality rates.
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What is the march to progress view?
We are all becoming equal and class divisions are being broken down. And that the position of children has improved dramatically.
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What sociologists hold the march to progress view?
Aries and Shorter. They argue that today's children are valued more, better cared for, protected and educated.
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Why do conflict sociologists(Marxists&Feminists) dispute the march to progress view?
Childhood is based on a false idealised image that ignores important inequalities.
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What do conflict sociologists criticise the march to progress view on?
There are inequalities among children in terms of the opportunities and risks they may face, The inequalities between adults and children.
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Who talked about gender inequalities among children?
Hillman- Boys allowed to go out by themselves after dark, however girls do 5 times more housework than boys.
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Who talked about inequalities among children and adults and what did they say?
Firestone- Protection from paid work is not a benefit to children but a form of inequality.
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Who talked about age patriarchy and what is it?
Gittens- Used to describe inequalities between adults and children.
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Who talked about the disappearance of childhood?
Postman.
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What did postman say about the disappearance of childhood?
Its's disappearing at a dazzling speed, he points towards the growing similarity of clothing, children committing 'adult' crimes. He argues it lies in the rise in television culture.
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What was Postman's argument to the growing similarity between adults and children?
During the middle ages most people were illiterate, speech was only needed in the adult world, so children were able to enter the adult world from an early age. Tele blurs the distinction between childhood&adulthood by destroys information hierarchy.
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What is the globalisation of childhood?
Western notions of childhood are being globalised.
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What does Palmer refer childhood as?
Toxic- Rapid and technological, cultural changes have damaged children's physical, emotional and intellectual development. e.g. Junk food, computer games.
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What do functionalists believe about society?
That society is based on a value consensus- a set of shared norms and values, into which society socialises its members.
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What do functionalists often compare society to?
A biological organism such as the human body.
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Who said that the family performs 4 essential Universal functions to meet the needs of society and its members and what are they?
Murdock- Stable satisfaction of the sex drive, Reproduction of the next generation, Socialisation of the young, meeting its members economic needs.
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What are some criticisms of Murdock?
Feminists see the family as serving the needs of men and oppressing women and Marxists argue that it meets the needs of capitalism, not those of family members or society as a whole.
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What is Parsons 'functional fit' theory?
The functions society performs will depend on the kind of society in which it is found.
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What two family structures does Parson's identify?
Nuclear and extended, Parson's argues that the particular structure and functions of a given type of family will 'fit' the needs of society in which it is found.
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What are the two types of society that parson's identify's?
Modern industrial and traditional pre-industrial society.
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What are the several functions that marxist's identify as fulfilling the needs of capitalism?
Inheritance of property, Ideological functions, A Unit of consumption.
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What is Inheritance of property?
The key factor determining the shape of all institutions including the family is the mode of production, The capitalist class owns and controls the means of production.
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What are ideological functions?
The family performs key ideological functions for capitalism, 'Ideology' Marxists mean a set of ideas and beliefs that justify inequality and maintain the capitalist system by persuading people it is fair.
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What is meant by a unit of consumption?
Capitalism exploits the labour of the workers, making a profit by selling the products of their labour for more than it pays them to produce these commodites.
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What are some criticisms of the Marxist perspective of the family?
Functionalists argue that Marxists ignore the very real benefits that the family provides. Marxists tend to assume that the nuclear family is dominant. Ignoring the others
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What is liberal feminists view on the family?
They hold a similar 'march to progress' view. They say gender equality is slowly being achieved.
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What is the Marxists feminists view on the family?
The main cause of women's oppression in the family is not men, but capitalism.
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What functions do marxists feminists say women are oppressed for the needs of capitalism?
Women reproduce the labour force through unpaid domestic labour, Women absorb anger that would otherwise be directed at capitalism, Women are a 'reserve army' of cheap labour.
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What is the radical feminists view of the family?
That all societies have been founded on patriarchy- Men are the source of women's oppression and exploitation, The family and marriage are the key institutions, Men benefit from women's unpaid work.
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What are some criticisms of perspectives on the family?
They all assume that the traditional nuclear family is the dominant family type ignoring family diversity.
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What is meant by ascribed status?
A status ascribed to you.
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What was the fertility rate in 2001?
1.63.
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What was the fertility rate in 2006?
1.84.
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What are some of the reasons for changes in fertility rates?
More women are remaining childless, Women are postponing having children.
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What are some of the major changes in the positions of women?
Legal equality(The Right to vote) Increased educational opportunities, More women in paid employment, changes in attitudes to family life, Easier access to divorce.
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What are some of some of the reasons for the decline in the infant mortality rate?
Improved housing and sanitation, Better nutrition, Better knowledge of hygiene.
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Why have children become more of an economic liability?
Laws banning child labour, introducing compulsory education, raising the school leaving age, Changing norms more material factors.
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What are some of the effects of changes in fertility?
Smaller families mean that women are more likely to be free to go out to work. Also the dependency ratio has decreased saving taxes of the working population. However public services suffer.
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What are some of the reasons for the decline in the death rate?
Less infectious diseases, Improved nutrition, Medical improvements, The decline in dangerous jobs, greater public knowledge of infection.
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What are some effects of an ageing population?
Using up public services, One-person pensioner households(14%). The dependency ratio increasing.
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What are the main reasons for emigration?
Economic, higher wages so opportunities are broadened. Political.
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What are some reasons for the increase in divorce rates?
Changes in the law, declining stigma and changing attitudes, secularisation, rising expectations of marriage, changes in the position of women.
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Why has changes in the law caused divorce rates to increase?
Equality, Divorce cheaper, Couples have other options; Desertion-where one partner leaves, Legal Separation-Can't remarry. EmptyShell-Just share a name.
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Why has declining stigma and changing attitudes caused divorce rates to increase?
Divorce has become more socially acceptable.
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Why has secularisation caused increased divorce rates?
Religious institutes are losing their influence and society is becoming more secular.
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Why is rising expectations of marriage causing divorce rates to increase?
Fletcher- The ideology of 'romantic love' couples no longer want to 'settle' they have higher expectations.
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Why is the changes in women causing higher divorce rates?
More women in paid work(47%-1959. 70%-2005) Equal pay, girls' gender success in education, benefits for women so they are not financially dependent on men.
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What does the new right say about increased divorce rates?
Undesirable because it undermines the traditional nuclear family.
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What do Feminists say about increased divorce rates?
Desirable because it shows women are breaking free from oppression.
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What do postmodernists say about increased divorce rates?
Gives individuals freedom and a cause for greater family diversity.
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What are some of the reasons for changing patterns of marriage?
Changing attitudes mean there is less pressure to marry, Secularisation means the churches influence declines. Declining stigma attached to alternatives to marriage, Changes in the positions of women, Fear of divorce.
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What is meant by Cohabitation?
An unmarried couple in a sexual relationship living together, There are 2 million cohabiting couples in Britain.
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What are some of the reasons for the increase in cohabitation?
Decline in stigma attached to sex outside of marriage.
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What is the New Right?
Have a conservative and anti-feminist perspective on the family and are firmly opposed to family diversity.
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What is the new rights view on the family?
They see lone-parent families as both unnatural and harmful especially to children. They disagree with women going out to work. They see marriage as essential.
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Who talked about the neo-conventional family?
Chester.
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What is the neo-conventional family?
Chester recognises increased family diversity. Neo-conventional family means the type of nuclear family with its division of labour between the man and woman. He describes it as a dual earner family.
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Who talked about the five types of family diversity?
The Rapoports.
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What are the five types of family diversity?
CLOGS-Cultural-Religious&Ethnic different family structure.Life-Stage-Newlyweds,Retired Couples.Organisational-Family Roles.Generational-Diffferent Attitudes.Social Class-Income-Structure.
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What is the life course analysis?
Focuses on meanings family members give to life events and choices. It uses unstructured interviews to uncover meanings and understand peoples choices about relationships and how these may lead to family diversity.
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What are family practices?
The routine actions through which we create our sense of 'being a family member'. Morgan uses the concept of 'family practices' to describe the routine actions through which we create a sense of 'being a family member'
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What does Giddens say about choice and equality?
Family and marriage have been transformed by greater choice and a more equal relationship-Contraception has allowed sex rather than reproduction to become the main reason for relationships.Women have gained independence.
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What does stacey mean by the divorce extended family?
When women rejected the traditional housewife mother role and had worked returned to education as adults, improved their job, divorced and remarried.
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What are some family policies?
Abolishing the family-Soviet government changed the laws to make divorce/abortion easy(Equality) China's one-child policy, Nazi Family policy-'Master race' woman kept out of the workforce,people sterilised if they were unfit to have children(disabled
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What is the functionalists perspective on families and social policies?
See society as built on harmony and consensus(shared values) See policies as being good for all see them as helping families to perform their functions more effectively.Fletcher-IndustrialRevolution.Health,Education.
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What are criticisms of the functionalists view?
It assumes that all members of the family benefit from social policies, it assumes that there is a 'march to progress'Making family life better.
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What are gender regimes?
Drew- uses gender regimes to describe how social polices in different countries can either encourage/discourage gender eqaulity.
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What are the two types of gender regimes that drew identifies?
Familistic- Traditional e.g. In Greece traditional division of labour. Individualistic-Husbands and wives should be treated the same e.g. Sweden-Equal opportunities policies
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Card 2

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What is the instrumental role?

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Traditionally the husbands role geared towards achieving success to provide for the family. He is the breadwinner.

Card 3

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What is the expressive role?

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Card 4

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What does Parson's argue about these roles?

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Who talked about Joint and Segregated conjugal roles?

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