Families and Households - Couples (Q & A's and Keywords and Definitions)

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  • Created by: Asma8901
  • Created on: 19-05-16 11:51
What is a household?
A person living alone or a group of people living together. Examples could be sharing meals, bills, housework etc.
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What is the domestic division of labour?
It refers to the roles that men and women play in relation to housework, childcare and paid work. Sociologists are interested in finding out whether the roles between men and women are equal or not.
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Instrumental Role (Talcott Parsons - Functionalist)
The husband has the instrumental role. This is where they work and provide for the family financially. They are the breadwinner of the family.
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Expressive Role (Talcott Parsons - Functionalist)
The wife has the expressive role. They would primarily socialise their children and meet the family's emotional needs. They would be the home-maker and full-time housewife rather than a wage earner.
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Talcott Parsons
Argues that division of labour is based on biological differences. Women are 'naturally' suited to the nurturing role and men to that of a provider. He claims this is beneficial for both the spouses, their children and society.
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Criticisms of Parsons
Young and Willmott argue that men are now helping more with domestic tasks and more wives are becoming wage earners. Feminists argue that the division of labour only benefits men.
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Segregated conjugal roles (Elizabeth Bott)
Couples have separate roles. Male breadwinner (Parsons instrumental role) and female home-maker/carer (Parsons expressive role). Leisure activities are also separate.
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Joint conjugal roles (Elizabeth Bott)
Couples share tasks such as housework and childcare and they spend their leisure time together.
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The symmetrical family (Young and Willmott - March of progress)
See family life as gradually improving for all its members. Couples now have the Joint conjugal role. Roles are not identical but are much more similar.
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How are they much more similar?
Women go out to work (maybe part-time than full-time); Men help with housework and childcare; They spend leisure time together now.
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Social changes that have taken place during the past century:
Changes in women's position (married women working); Geographical mobility; New technology (labour-saving devices); Higher standards of living.
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Feminist view of housework
They reject the 'march of progress' view. Argue that little has changed. - Patriarchy in family and society.
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Ann Oakley
Criticises Young and Willmott. Argues that their views are exaggerated.
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Ann Oakley's research
In her own research, found some husbands helping - 15% in housework and 25% in childcare.
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Mary Boulton
Fewer than 20% men had major role in childcare. The mother is always the one who is responsible for the child's security and well-being.
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The impact of paid work ('New man')
'New man' (taking responsibility and doing an equal share of housework and childcare).
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The impact of paid work (Dual burden)
Paid work as well as domestic work.
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Jonathan Gershuny
Argues that women working full-time is leading to a more equal division of labour in the home. He found that these women did less domestic work than other women.
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Oriel Sullivan
Found trend towards women doing smaller share of domestic work and men doing more.Her analysis showed that there is an increase in the equal division of labour and men are participating in traditional 'women's' tasks.
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Feminist View
Little equality (women have dual burden now). Little sign of the 'New man'.
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Triple shift
Women doing the domestic work, emotion work and paid work.
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The cultural or ideological explanation of inequality
Division of labour is determined by patriarchal norms and values that shape the gender roles in our culture. Society expects women to do more domestic work.
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The material or economic explanation of inequality
Women generally earn less than men - economically rational for women to do more domestic work while men are still spending their time earning money.
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The allowance system (Pahl and Vogler)
Men give their wives an allowance out of which they have to budget to meet the family's needs, with the man retaining any surplus income for himself.
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Pooling (Pahl and Vogler)
Where both partners have access to income and joint responsibility for the expenditure; for example, a joint bank account. this is now the most common money management system.
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Decision-making
Men still made major financial decisions even though there was pooling.
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Challenge of the view that the cause of domestic violence is psychological rather than social
Domestic violence is far too widespread; Domestic violence doesn't occur randomly (follows particular social pattern).
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Russell and Rebecca Dobash
Found that violent incidents could be set off by what a husband saw as a challenge to his authority. Foe example, wife asking why he was late home for a meal.
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3 assumptions of the family life (David Cheal)
The family is a private sphere, so access by state agencies should be limited; family is a good thing so agancies neglect 'darker side' of family life; Individuals are free agents - assumed women are free to leave if she is experiencing abuse.
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Woman from social groups at greater risk of domestic violence
Young women, those in lower social classes and those living in the most deprived areas.
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Fran Ansley
Domestic violence is the product of capitalism. Women are 'takers of s**t'. - men are exploited at work so take frustration out on their wives.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

It refers to the roles that men and women play in relation to housework, childcare and paid work. Sociologists are interested in finding out whether the roles between men and women are equal or not.

Back

What is the domestic division of labour?

Card 3

Front

The husband has the instrumental role. This is where they work and provide for the family financially. They are the breadwinner of the family.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The wife has the expressive role. They would primarily socialise their children and meet the family's emotional needs. They would be the home-maker and full-time housewife rather than a wage earner.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Argues that division of labour is based on biological differences. Women are 'naturally' suited to the nurturing role and men to that of a provider. He claims this is beneficial for both the spouses, their children and society.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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