Factors affecting the nature and development of elite performance - A2 physical education AQA

Some flashcards specifically for the AQA PE spec PHED3 exam. Hope they are helpful and comment of any mistakes

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  • Created on: 21-05-14 19:55
What is meant by elite sport?
Performers who have reached a level of excellence according to national and international standards. Including both amateur and professionals and able bodied and disabled.
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What physiological qualities are required of an elite performer?
Physiological: innate ability, high fitness & health, high pain threshold, likely to be preferred body type for sport.
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What psychological qualities are required of an elite performer?
High competitiveness, motivation/willingness to train, commitment & sacrifice, mental toughness.
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What should talent identification programmes consider?
Physiology, anthropometry, psychology, hereditary factors, socio-cultural factors.
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Advantages of a systematic TID programme?
Helps accelerate progress to elite level, selects sport most suited to athlete, helps coach concentrate training methods, allows a country to benefit
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Disadvantages of a systematic TID Programme?
Large numbers need to be tested, coaches 'eye' can be best guide, requires funding, difficult to predict talent young, specialism before 13yo can be detrimental physically & psychologically.
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What does UK Sport do to support elite athletes and their development?
Talent identification(e.g Pitch to Podium, Sporting Giants), performance lifestyle(work/life balance), coaching, facilities/equipment, physios/S&C coaches/nutrition/psychologists/biomechanics, WCPP - funding for coaching, travel, facilities, medical.
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What are levels of the WCPP?
World Class Podium, World Class Development, World Class Talent
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Name some organisations involved in the TASS programme
EIS, Sport England, SportsAid, UK Sport, NGBs
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What does the English Institute of Sport (EIS) provide?
Sports science & medicine, biomechanics/medical screening/nutritional advice/psychology/podiatry/S&C/sports massage, Performance Lifestyle programme.
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What do National Governing Bodies (NGBs) do for sport?
Establish rules & regulations, organise competitions, develop coaching awards & leadership schemes, select teams for country at international events, loads with Sport England, BOA, etc...
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What are Whole Sport Plans (WSPs)?
Plan for a sport from grassroots to elite level, direct funding to NGBs, PESSCLS.
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What are the aims of Sport England
'Grow, Sustain, Excel'/'start, stay, succeed'
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What does Sportscoach UK contribute to elite athletes in the UK
Leads & develops national standards of coaching, works with NGBs/BOA, provide education products(seminars, factsheets), Coachwise Ltd, UK Coaching Certificate, John Lewis association.
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What are the aims of the British Olympic Association (BOA)?
Increase interest in Olympics, organise British travel/equipment of competitors & officials, assist preparation of competitions, raise funds, advise on training/nutrition/sports psych for Oly coaches, medical/career advice for athletes.
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How does the National Lottery contribute to sport?
Funding for UK sports, help athletes through WCPP, help attract and stage major sorting events in UK.
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Advantages of lottery funding?
UK medal winners increased, role models for youth, health benefits, social benefits, legacy of facilities etc..., economic benefit for UK.
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Disadvantages of lottery funding?
Money could be spent on education & health, athletes should be accountable, major events in specific areas so not whole country benefit.
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What are the three main objectives of Sports Aid?
Further education of young people through sport, encourage social/physically disadvantaged to improve lives through sport, enable those in poverty to benefit.
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What are the characteristics of World Games?
International/elite level, multi-sport or single sport, spectator events, media, commercialisation, rewards, amateur or professional, possible deviancy, top facilities, able-bodied/disabled, multi-cultural.
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How could participation in World Games affect a competitor?
Celebrity status, sponsorship, advertising, personal satisfaction, monetary gain, recognition & respect.
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How is a spectator affected by World Games?
Excitement, entertainment, escapism, fan base, encourages participation
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How could World Games impact on a host country?
Monetary gain, "shop window" for businesses, advertising, raised profile, association with elite performers.
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Outline factors which could be barriers to progression as an elite performer?
Gender - sexism, less interest/coverage in women. Race/ethnicity - black/Asians discriminated. Disability - lower participation/facilities/coaches/coverage. Social class - lack of finance/parental support, associated certain sports, less free time.
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What are the stages of the LTAD model in late specialisation?
FUNdamentals, learning to train, training to train, training to compete, training to win, active for life.
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How does the early specialisation LTAD differ?
For when young people show talent very young (8-10), which requires early sport-specific training.
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Outline characteristics of Popular Recreation in pre-industrial Britain
Occasional, local, rural, lack of rules, violent, involving wagering.
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What socio-cultural factors determined the characteristics of popular recreation?
Occasional- little free time, usually only bank holidays, local - limited travel, violent - reflected lifestyle, uncoded -illiteracy.
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Characteristics of rational recreation
Industrial/urban, middle class, factory teams, increased wages, increased free time (Sat half day), codification, athleticism.
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How did ex-public schoolboys contribute to the development of rational sport?
Established standardised and codified rules accross all universities, blues returned to teach rules in schools, gentleman amateur - took sport with them, expanded sport to middle & working classes, provided better facilities
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What is the contract to compete?
Unwritten code, abide by rules, give 100%, sportsmanship/athleticism, fair play
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What is athleticism?
Physical endeavor with moral integrity
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What is sportsmanship?
Encouragement of fairness, abiding by the unwritten rules.
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Amateurism?
Playing for the love of the sport, no monetary gain.
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Professionalism?
Monetary rewards, play for incentive values over love of sport
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Gamesmanship
Bending the rules of the game to gain an advantage
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Discuss the fact that sportsmanship has declined
For: Increased number of sports-prosecutions(drugs, aggression), more emphasis on win, monetary rewards, spectator behaviour, media hype. Against: Fair play schemes & campaigns, role models, better officials & technology, punish negative behaviour,
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How are values of athleticism, amateurism and Olympism still relevant in modern sport?
Encourage respect & rules, PE stresses moral values, Olympics based on amateurism and ethics, fair play awards, positive role models, drug use illegal
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How are values of athleticism, amateurism and Olympism less relevant that they used to be in modern sport?
Lombardian ethic(win all costs), nowadays all classes compete, commercialisation increases pressure, professional more dominant than amateur, increasing legislation & prosecutions - losing values.
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Who controlled sport and allowed sport to develop?
Middle class - developed clubs, built facilities, provided land for sport, increased leisure time, banning alcohol so fit for work Monday morning.
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How did industrialisation affect the lower class
Urbanisation, terraced houses, cramped, increased disposable income, bank holiday/Wed afternoon & half day Sat, changes to sport
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What are the values of Olympism?
Fair play, mass participation, international understanding, cultural exchange, personal excellence, "faster, higher, stronger"
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Factors that have influenced the growth and development of Association Football from 1850
Urbanisation(captive audience). Spectator(facilities/terraces). Less working hours. Increased wages. Improved transport(away matches). Fixtures. Professionalism. Broken time payments. Increased media. Standardised rules. Control gambling. Technology
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Factors that allow the development of Association Football today
Commercialism(sponsorship). More media coverage- watched worldwide. Less discrimination. Role models increase participation. Bosman ruling. Travel(international). Grassroots schemes. Increased fixtures/rule changes/more officials/larger competitions
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What social & cultural factors allow progression to an elite performer?
Experience of sport and encouragement at school. High quality facilities/coaching/technology/medical. High status of elite sport in community. Social class(not all sports recieve funding). Media(role models/high profile). Anti-discrimination policies
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Why did the amateur performer have higher status than the professional performer in the 19th century?
Amateurs were middle & upper classes. Professionals working class. Amateurs applied moral values to sport. Amateurs had power to exclude working classes(eg closed competitions where professionals not allowed to compete)
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How can a professional performer be considered a commercial object?
He/she signs contract. Can be hired/fired. Advertise/endorse product=financial return for company. His/her image is exploited. Performer financially rewarded.
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What can be some of the pressures of being a role model?
Invasion of privacy by media. Influence young people so need consistent clean image. Need to perform regularly, can=overtraining/injury. Physical and psychological stress.
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What are the advantages of commercialism in sport?
Allows improved resources/facilities/coaching. Leads to more events. Provides role models(=inc. participation). Allows athletes to earn income. Raises profile of the sport.
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What are the disadvantages of commercialism in sport?
Encourages deviant behaviour(more important success). Encourages more spectator ship rather than participation. Usually supports already popular sports. Favours males/able-bodied. Amateur sports turning professional. Rewards for marketing objectives.
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How have the media and commercialisation affect sport?
Rule/scoring changes to inc. excitement. Breaks for advertisements. Competitive season extended. Athletes put under pressure to perform. Media hype. Improved technology for spectator.
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What are the two types of deviancy and differences?
Negative deviancy - win at all costs, includes deliberate fouls/takins PEDs. Positive deviancy - over-conformity to sport ethic, eg train when injured.
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Possible causes of violence in sport?
Nature of sport. History of rivalry. Observed violence. Officials decisions. Monetary rewards. Importance of event. Media hype. Alcohol. Frustration.
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Consequences of violence in sport?
Loss of sponsors. Negative role models. Loss of spectators. Banning supporters. Loss of points.
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What has been done to reduce violence in sport?
Crowd segregation/all seater stadia. Limit attendance. Fair play charters. Severe punishments. Positive role models. Clubinks. Increased security/CCTV. Control alcohol. Improve facilities.
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When can sport need the law?
Negligence in sport. Assault in sport. Risk management. Event management/insurance. Marketing/sponsorship rights. Contract laws. Environmental laws. Doping/drugs in sport. Discrimination/racism. Child protection.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What physiological qualities are required of an elite performer?

Back

Physiological: innate ability, high fitness & health, high pain threshold, likely to be preferred body type for sport.

Card 3

Front

What psychological qualities are required of an elite performer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What should talent identification programmes consider?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Advantages of a systematic TID programme?

Back

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Comments

danamustrevise

Thank you! 

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