f763 globalisation case studies

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 05-04-15 20:52
Bhutan - LEDC
traditional isolationists / opened T 1974 (controlled $250/day) / 1996 (46 international TV) / +ve develops / -ve migration villages
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China - NIC
1949 communist / 1978 FDI / 2001 WTO / economic zones (GUANGDONG) / polarised / greater UN influence / larger trade surplus EU + US
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Guangdong Province, South China - Pearl River Delta
1980 3 zones / 1984 Guangzhou liberalisation / 1985 Pearl River liberalisation / 82% GDP / $5144 (2.5x avg) / 5-6% M poll. / 3/4 no sewage t / $1 day / 10 hr days / no international demand
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Chongqing, Central China
River Yangtze / domestic demand / municipality status 1997 (FTZ) / 0.5M year pop inc / 13 Ecopolis / violent protests 2002 / smog / untreated sewage
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UK - MEDC
offshoring = low inflation / FDI high / R+D high / polarisation / 2006 12.5% workforce foreign / 600,000 migrants to UK 2004-2006 / cosmopolitan / resentment EU / more resource demand
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Southern UK - economic restructuring
Dyson (2013 650 grad / 250 R+D Wiltshere) / Migration (net debt kept low) / 81 yrs life (!2 more than N) / heart of EU policies (loss of sovereignty to EU)
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Northern UK - economic restructuring
Manchester (dereliction, NIC C.advantage) / autonomy loss (self gov.) / London house price 1/3 more expensive / Ryton, Coventry closure 2006 (poll. 53ha) / excluded
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UK - global management
FDI (inflation low, cheaper production costs) / liberalisation / larger market / workers union / regeneration of derelict land
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UK - national management
Openess (EU market, FDI stock value inc for services) / lower corporate tax rates (UK20% US40%) / labour flex 2.51 / personal tax reduced / FDI subsidies / stable ex(£ dep. against $ +ve inward) / HS2 N/S divide 70% jobs, 0.8% GDP 5 yrs, £42.6Bn
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UK - regional management
RDA's abolished + fragmented to LEP's / WDA 4 aims / CAP late 20th century / Cardiff Bay (UK gov money + EU grants)
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UK - migration management
5 tier system ( high entrepreneurs / high skilled / low skilled / students (16+) / 6 sub tiers) / 15-20% economic growth 2001-2005 / inc 30% / 2010 (250,000) 2013 (150,000) point system 2014 (250,000) Romania joined EU
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Toyota - horizontal TNC
power devotion from Tokyo / 7 R+D outside Japan / 16% revenue inc 1998-1999 / 6 continents / 27 countries / Burnaston 65% locally sourced / USA 0 landfill / JIT /76% manu outside company / 57% foreign activities
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Nike - vertical TNC
700 factories / >75% workforce Asia / SAMYANG, VIETNAM ( 1995, 5200 direct, $54/day 2x avg, 14day annual leave, no under 15, 2001 edu.) CAMBODIA (2001, 52 hrs overtime, age 12 working)
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McDonalds TNC
68th largest economy / UK 70% owned locally / 55% own ingredients 17,500 british farms / $6.3Bn year / $1.3Bn year tax / national links / culture diffusion / -ve local community + restaurants
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European tour
50 events / 56% outside EU / vast coverage / traditional sports suffer / large brands outcompete
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Apple TNC
Pegatron Taiwanese electronics manu / PROMISES (ethical, standards, 8 in 1 room, 24hrs training, record 700,000 people), REALITY (remove ID, 80,000 people, 12 1 room, 1-2 hrs training)
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Wimbledon tennis ball - TNC product
Slazenger, 1/5 of £165M turnover / 1940's Glouc. now Philipp. / manu (Bataan) - materials - rubber (Malaysia), covering wool (Glouc.), wool (NZ), tins (Indonesia) / testing (Lobo Uni) /
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Bolivia - trade LEDC
Merch surplus $1044M, Serv defecit $368M / 85% merchandise trade / payment surplus $676M / IMPORTS manu. 80% trans. 40% / Brazil 20% reliance / USA 12% / EXPORTS agri, coffee / STRATEGIES diversify grants
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China - trade NIC
Merch surplus $260Bn, Serv defect $125Bn / 89% merchandise trade / payment surplus $135Bn / IMPORTS manu. 60% trans. 40% / Asia / EU reliance / EXPORTS manu. 94% / STRATEGIES lower export goods cost, domestic demand
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UK - trade MEDC
Merch defecit $1.3Tn, Serv surplus $0.5Tn / 50% services / payment surplus $5Bn / IMPORTS manu. 68% trans. 30% / EU 50% reliance / China 10% / EXPORTS manu. 60% / STRATEGIES bilateral trade outside EU, attract FDI
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Ghana - unfair trade LEDC
IMF after WW2 for loans / WB funds mostly MEDC's / Cocoa 60% export earning / PROBLEMS : neo-colonialism (decisions MEDCs), 7.7% tariff unpro. 65% pro SOLUTION: Kuapa Kokoo 1993, 40,000 members 650 villages - credit + profit
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GATT (now WTO) - global scale trade
1947 set up, 1979 reduce tariffs + quotas, 1995 WTO (152 members) / exports have grown / tariffs are 1/10 of 1947 / MEDC's control / mutual consent / doesn't control food dumping
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EU - ACP , BILATERAL - national scale trade
2000 Cotonou agreement 775,000t tariff free quota, L.America colonies better condition €230/t reduced to €175/t , now €190M to ACP to diversify
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NAFTA , regional scale trade
1/1/1994 , USA - manu. - 2100 move to Mexico, wage reduced - agri - subsidised + dump on Mexico / MEXICO - manu - improve competitiveness, free trade, - agri - over dependency + loss of market (wheat to peanuts)
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UK - Uganda , bilateral aid +ve
Bilateral bottom up / UK's DFID gave $2M to community challenge (C3) / Kawempe, Kampala slum of 300,000 / local ownership initiative / own resources / labour / 140 small businesses 2003 / located only URBAN poverty
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UK - Malaysia , bilateral aid -ve
Bilateral top down / £234M dam / built temporary relations between country / little benefits / £1.3Bn on UK Hawk fighters / Pergau dam in return / illegal aid
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NGO - Burkina Faso , voluntary aid
3rd poorest country / 1 doc per 57,000 / 27% pro. edu. / $400M aid / BOTTOM UP - 'fly with own wings' 19 villages / TOP DOWN - £50M agri. research, dam, reservoir / +ves living stndrds, health, income / -ves political, not locals, isolated by poverty
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IMF, WB, MEDC's - LEDC's, Kenya, Sri Lanka, multilateral aid
1970-1990 Kenya SAP's inc edu cost to $180/month / Sri Lanka SAP's dam 1.5M relocated 90km away / budget $14Bn taxes raised / TOP DOWN +ve gov benefit, dam 120,000ha irrigated -ve prices raised, only wealthy
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Card 2

Front

1949 communist / 1978 FDI / 2001 WTO / economic zones (GUANGDONG) / polarised / greater UN influence / larger trade surplus EU + US

Back

China - NIC

Card 3

Front

1980 3 zones / 1984 Guangzhou liberalisation / 1985 Pearl River liberalisation / 82% GDP / $5144 (2.5x avg) / 5-6% M poll. / 3/4 no sewage t / $1 day / 10 hr days / no international demand

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

River Yangtze / domestic demand / municipality status 1997 (FTZ) / 0.5M year pop inc / 13 Ecopolis / violent protests 2002 / smog / untreated sewage

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

offshoring = low inflation / FDI high / R+D high / polarisation / 2006 12.5% workforce foreign / 600,000 migrants to UK 2004-2006 / cosmopolitan / resentment EU / more resource demand

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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