f763 earth hazards case study

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 07-04-15 10:41
Tohoku, Japan - Earthquake MEDC, h/p + p/s
11/03/2011, Friday, 2pm, 9.0 RS, $300Bn, dense + poor reg., clay lining fault slip 50m, 32km DOF, 72km Epi, 6mins, tsunami 39m 10km inland, 0.6m coast drop, 5000 aftershocks 1yr, LIQ+AMPLI
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Tohoku, Japan - Earthquake MEDC - imp
130,500 buildings / 4000 roads / $300Bn / 16,000 dead / 3,000 missing / tsunami defences ruined / Fukushima 2011-2013 300t/day / 11,000 nesting seabirds
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Tohoku, Japan - Earthquake MEDC - management ST/LT
ST - P- S-waves 90s to reach Tohkyo / P- 58% higher g, Japanese self defence, 8 fighter jets check, stop high speed travel / P- 91 countries aid /LT- P - tsunami warning system / P- safe,sust,compas, /P- seismic building codes (6days road repair)
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Haiti - Earthquake LEDC - h/p + p/s
12/01/2012, Tuesday, 4pm, 7.0 RS, $8Bn, dense + poor reg, N American plate sliding past Caribbean plate, 13km DOF, 25km Epi P-au-P, 6.1 aftershocks 8 days, Amplif.
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Haiti - Earthquake LEDC - imp
port destroyed / $8Bn / 'pancake effect' / 180,000 homes destroyed / 15% GDP loss from 2010 / 230,000 deaths / 1M homeless / cholera / oil + toxic chem. leak
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Bam, Iran - Earthquake LEDC - h + p/s
26/12/2003, Friday, 5am, 6.3 - 6.6 RS, $1.5Bn, dense pop x2 last 20yrs, poor reg, mud + brick, 10km SW Epi, 60 aftershocks 60 days
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Bam, Iran - Earthquake LEDC - imp
$1.5Bn / 100,000 homeless / 85% buildings destroyed / 31,000 killed / health system damaged / little enviro as not much industry
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Bam, Iran - Earthquake LEDC - management ST/LT
ST - P - no warning P - aid from 40 countries S+R 2hrs / 12,000 airlifted to hosp. / 92,000 tents donated / 400,000 ready meals / LT P - better edu. P - rebuilt with tech. - steel corner pillars(tremors)/ reinforced conc/ stone foundations
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Mt St Helens, USA - Volcano MEDC h/p + p/s
18/05/1980, 8am, VEI 5, $1Bn, not strict enough exclusions, magma plug + groundwater depressurised = hot lateral gas blast, 600km deposits 100km/hr flows, 50km/hr lahars, 250km/hr landslides, 3km deposits
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Mt Pinatubo, Philippines - Volcano LEDC p/s
15/06/1991, VEI 6, $250M, 12 pflows 5km deposits 300d.c, lahars years after affected crops + access, 2.5km caldera 260m lower than crater
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Krakatoa, Indonesia - Volcano LEDC (Secondary)
1883 / VEI 6 / 120ft Tsunami (weak rock magma chamber) / p.flows 25miles (62mph) / 36,000 died in Java + Sumatra, RESPONSES - no warning / little recovery LEDC / dense pop.
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Laki, Iceland - Volcano LEDC (Primary)
1784 / 14 km volcanic gas lasted 8 months (SO2) / 50% livestock died - 25% population starved / 10,00 people died / RESPONSES - could have been better edu.
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Vargas, Venezuela Mudlslides - Mass Movement LEDC h+p
14-19th Dec 1999, Sierra de Avila mountains, $1.79Bn / deforest. poor, dense 300,000 in 1km, 6.3% growth on A.fans 1990-2001 / steep topog, 2,700m up in 10km, 8th-19th cold front 914mm, weathered ig rock + phyllite (clay)
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Vargas, Venezuela Mudslides - Mass Movement LEDC - management
PREDICT - cracks in wall / stairs pull away / PREPARE - temporary walls / canals / supports / PROTECT - slope stabilisation (geometric, hydrogeo., mech., natural) / edu. / hazard mapping
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Aberfan, Landslide - Mass Movement LEDC
21st Oct 1996 / 100,000m³ of colliery 30km/hr. spring mobilised / sandstone(200mm/hr) clay under (5mm/hr) / 2 days rain / steep / spoil heap no.7, 147 died (116 Pantglas) - have natural s.stabilise, 1969 mines + quarry act
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Bangladesh - Flooding LEDC - p/h
1998 Brah, Gang, Megh - 156M pop. (50M in poverty), $1Bn / g. warming input Himalayas 30M in 30yrs + 252% pop increase 1961-2001 / input once melt + monsoon 1000mm /day, basin drains 12x size country / low topog 70% land
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Bangladesh - Flooding LEDC - imp
7M buildings, 23M homeless, 500,000 livestock drowned, 660,00 Ha crops $1Bn , 2Mt rice lost / 57% country covered, 1300 people died, cholera / habitats drowned
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Boscastle - Flooding MEDC - p/h
16th Aug 2004 / daytime / 740 pop. / antecedent (5in few hrs, 2m rise, brown willy 420m) / hurricane Alex / cone / steep / shale / confluence of J+V / HUMAN - poor culverts / stone arch bridge / not prepared
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Boscastle - Flooding MEDC - imp + management
100 homes+businesses, 75 cars, 6 weeks tourist industry (witchcraft museum) / no injuries / veg. left upstream / RESPONES - quick recovery (insurance) / bridge large h.radius / channel dredging / upgrade culverts / carpark permeable
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LA - Flooding MEDC - physical + human + management
PHYSICAL-3000km soft rock / 60miles high urban / steep slopes / poor veg (Chaparral) / gullying /HUMAN- skyscrapers (inc rain 20%) / aggregation /RESPONSES - D.dam - F.C dam - S.ground - Improved channel(smooth.C)/ wide span bridges/ better h.radius
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Haiti - Earthquake LEDC management ST/LT
ST P - no warning P - $100M US $300M EU aid P - 4.3M provided for weeks / LT P - 1 yr people still live in aid camps P - 98% rubble on road P - temp. schools built
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Mt St Helens, USA - Volcano MEDC imp
$1Bn, 250 buildings, 57 died, spiny lake + tootle river filled in - salmon died
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Mt St Helens, USA - Volcano MEDC management ST/LT
ST - P - 5% worlds volcanoes monitored / P - red + blue exclusion zones / P - national guard rescue 130 people, 2000 evac, 3 days ash cleared Yakima / LT - P - seismic m, GIS, Tiltmeters, deformation, thermal,gas,rock,image analysis, topog + hydro
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Mt Pinatubo, Philippines - Volcano LEDC imp
50,000 buildings, 50% farm animals, 1yr later crop planting, $250M, 800+ died, 1d.c temp drop
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Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines - Volcano LEDC management ST/LT
ST - P - lack of money + tech / P - USGS 8km exclusion zones 60,000 evacuated / P - US clark AFB (shelter toxic mercury) + subic NB / LT - P - daily satellite monitor + lahar monitor / P - better medical storage
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Mt Etna, Sicily - Volcano Effusive
1991-1993, 25% people on flanks, lava 250M meters, affected farmland, vineyards+chestnut orchards / no deaths / radon gas monitors / GPS / topog / seismom / 1992 400x20m barrier Zafferana, div channels, stopped 850m before, US marines bomb lava tubes
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Vargas, Venezuela Mudlslides - Mass Movement LEDC imp
20,000 houses + $1.79Bn / 30,000 deaths + 100,000 displaced / water + sewage treatment destroyed
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Vargas, Venezuela Mudlslides - Mass Movement LEDC ST/LT
ST - P - early signs ignored (sediments in mountain streams)/ P - temp walls, canals, supports built / LT - P - monitor mountain channels/ P - 'set back' scheme 30m land use + h. mapping / parallel apartments + roads (overflow channel) / edu / stab.
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Banagladesh - Flooding LEDC - management
ST - P - hard to access LT - P - slow as little money / P - CARE bangladesh built embank. afforest. raised buildings + edu. / P - 1989 gov. 'flood action plan' - 7 large dams $40M + flood storage
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Card 2

Front

130,500 buildings / 4000 roads / $300Bn / 16,000 dead / 3,000 missing / tsunami defences ruined / Fukushima 2011-2013 300t/day / 11,000 nesting seabirds

Back

Tohoku, Japan - Earthquake MEDC - imp

Card 3

Front

ST - P- S-waves 90s to reach Tohkyo / P- 58% higher g, Japanese self defence, 8 fighter jets check, stop high speed travel / P- 91 countries aid /LT- P - tsunami warning system / P- safe,sust,compas, /P- seismic building codes (6days road repair)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

12/01/2012, Tuesday, 4pm, 7.0 RS, $8Bn, dense + poor reg, N American plate sliding past Caribbean plate, 13km DOF, 25km Epi P-au-P, 6.1 aftershocks 8 days, Amplif.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

port destroyed / $8Bn / 'pancake effect' / 180,000 homes destroyed / 15% GDP loss from 2010 / 230,000 deaths / 1M homeless / cholera / oil + toxic chem. leak

Back

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