F334 What's in a medicine?

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What functional group do carboxylic acids contain?
Carboxyl
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acid + base -->?
salt + water
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The equation for esterification?
carboxylic acid + alcohol --> ester + water
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The conditions for esterification?
heated under reflux with concentrated sulphuric acid
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How do you test for carboxylic acids?
react with a carbonate and carbon dioxide will form and can be shown with limewater
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The equation for carboxylic acids with carbonates?
carbonate + acid --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
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What is the functional group of an ester?
COO
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What is the functional group of an acyl chloride?
COCl
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What is the functional group of an amide?
CONH
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What is the functional group of an acid anhydride?
COOCO
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How do you test for a phenol?
With neutral iron(III) chloride solution which is turned purple
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Alcohols, phenols and carboxylic acids all react with water to form what?
oxonium ions (H3O+)
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order phenol, ethanoic acid, ethanol and water in order of acidic strength
ethanol, water, phenol, ethanoic acid
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How can the strengh of these as acids be explained?
By comparing the stability of the anion (R-O-)
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What catalyst is used to hydrolyse an ester?
dilute sulphuric acid or an alkali catalyst (i.e. NaOH)
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What is the difference in using an alkali catalyst rather than dilute sulphuric acid to hydrolyse an ester?
a carboxylate salt is formed rather than a carboxylic acid and the reaction goes to completion
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what reagents and conditions are needed to form an ester from a phenol?
acyl chlorides at room temp or acid anhydrides heated under reflux with anhydrous conditions for both
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How are esters named?
First part = alcohol. Second part = carboxylic acid
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How is atom economy calulated?
% atom economy = (Mr of useful products/Mr of reactants used) x 100
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What 2 reactions always have 100% atom economy?
Rearrangement an addition
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Aldehydes and ketons both contain what?
the carbonyl group: C=O
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How do you prepare an aldehyde?
Distil a primary alcohol with acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution
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How do you prepare a carboxylic acid?
Heat a primary alcohol under reflux with acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution
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How do you prepare a ketone?
Heat a secondary alcohol under reflux with acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution
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The dichromate (VI) changes from what to colour to what other colour when reacting with an alcohol?
Orange to Green
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What's the equation for the dichromate (VI) ion changing colour?
Cr2O7 2- (aq) + 14H + (aq) + 6e - --> 2Cr 3+ (aq) + 7H2O
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Why can only aldehydes be oxidised further?
Because of the hydrogen atom of the carbonyl group
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How else can aldehydes be distinguished from ketones?
React them with Fehling's solution. Aldehyde is oxidised and the blue Cu 2+ are reducded to Cu +, forming an orange/brown precpitate. Ketones are not oxidised so no colour change
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What is Fehling's solution?
Cu 2+ ions and alkali
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How can you reduce carbonyl compounds back to alcohol?
using the powerful reducing agent sodium tetrahydridoborate (NaBH4). (This reaction is on the exam data sheet)
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What type of reaction do ketones and aldehydes undergo with hydrogen cyanide and in the presence of what?
Nucleophilic addition. Alkali.
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What is the product of that reaction?
A cyanohydrin or 2-hydroxynitrile
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What is the Bronstead-Lowry theory?
A base is a H+ acceptor and an acid is a H+ donor.
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What word describes a substance that can act as both an acid and a base?
amphoteric
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What is the molecular ion in mass spec?
The molecule being tested when it's lost just one electron
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What is fragmentation in mass spec?
When the molecular ion breaks up into other smaller fragment ions and uncharged fragments
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What does the x-axis of a mass spectrum show?
mass-to-charge ratio (m/z)
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What does the y-axis show?
Intensity
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Every line in the sprectrum represents a positively charged ion. True of false?
True
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

acid + base -->?

Back

salt + water

Card 3

Front

The equation for esterification?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The conditions for esterification?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do you test for carboxylic acids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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