F332 Salters Chemistry Glossary

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Ionisation enthalpy
The enthalpy require to remove an electron from a gaseous element
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First Ionisation enthalpy
the energy needed to remove one electron from every atom in one mole of isolated gaseous element so that 1 mole of gaseous ions with one positive charge are formed
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Periodicity
A series of repeating trends observed across a period
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Cations
Positive ions
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Anions
Negative ions
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Ionic lattice
Solid form of an ionic substance arranged in fixed positions
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Hydrated crystals
Crystals of an ionic substance that include molecules of water integrated into the structure
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Water of Crystallisation
The water found integrated into a crystalline structure
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Anhydrous solid
A hydrated crystal that has had the water driven from it
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Spectator ions
Ions that don't take part in a reaction and remain unchanged
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Ionic Equations
An equation for a reaction that lacks the spectator ions
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Electrostatic bond
Bond involving the electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged ions
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Lone Pairs
Pairs of electrons that remain on their original atom and are not involved with bonding
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Dative covalent bond
A bond where the lone pair of electrons of one atom are donated to the other atom in the bond
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Electronegativity
The extent to which an atom attracts electrons to its nuclei
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Instantaneous dipole - induced dipole
Weak bonding where a molecule with a temporary dipole triggers a dipole in a second molecule so attracting the two molecules together
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Permanent Dipole - Permanent Dipole
mid-strength bond where two dipoles are attracted toward each other
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Hydrogen bonding
strongish bonding caused by a NOF bonded to a hydrogen. Where the hydrogen is attracted to a lone pair on the NOF atom of another molecule
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Oxidation
The loss of electrons
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Reduction
The gain of electrons
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Reducing agents
molecules/ions/atoms that donate electrons to be oxidised
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Oxidising agents
molecules/ions/atoms that accept electrons to be reduced
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Oxidation State
Where each atom in a molecule is assigned an oxidation number to denote how oxidised or reduced it is
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Density
The mass per unit volume of a substance
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Atomic size
The space that the electrons of an atom occupy
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Homolytic fission
The breaking of a bond that results in the production of radicals
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Radical
An atom or molecule with unpaired electrons
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Heterolytic fission
The breaking of a bond that produces ions
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Nucleophile
These are chemical species that donate electron pairs to other molecules
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Electrophiles
Chemical species that accept electrons from electron dense areas
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Electronic energy levels
Energy levels involving the excitation of electrons
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Vibrational energy levels
Energy levels involving the vibration of the bonds in a molecule
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Rotational energy levels
Energy levels involving the rotation of the entire molecule
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Translational energy levels
Energy levels involving the kinetic energy of the molecule
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Initiation reaction
The reaction where the radicals are formed
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Propagation reaction
The reactions where the radicals react with other molecules to generate more radicals
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Termination reaction
The reactions where radicals collide with each other to eliminate radicals and take them out of circulation
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Collision theory
That reactions occurs when particles of a reaction collide provided that they collide with a certain minimum kinetic energy
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Activation Enthalpy
The minimum kinetic energy required by a pair of colliding particles before a reaction will occur
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Catalyst
Substance that provided an alternate pathway for a reaction with a lower Ea by forming intermediate chemicals with the reactants
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Stereoisomerism
Isomers with the same molecular formula and the atoms are bonded in the same order but the arrangement in space is different
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Intermolecular bonds
Bonds between molecules
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Intramolecular
Bonds within molecules
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Polymers
Long chains made up of small units called monomers bonded together
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Elastomers
Polymers that can be deformed and then return to their original shape
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Plastics
Polymers that stay deformed when pushed out of shape
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Fibres
Polymers that can be drawn out into strong, thin fibres
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Thermoplastic
A polymer with no cross links so will melt upon heating and so can be moulded
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Thermoset
A polymer with extensive cross linking stay retains shape upon heating
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Alkene
An unsaturated hydrocarbon
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Carbocation
A positively charged carbon atom
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Card 2

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the energy needed to remove one electron from every atom in one mole of isolated gaseous element so that 1 mole of gaseous ions with one positive charge are formed

Back

First Ionisation enthalpy

Card 3

Front

A series of repeating trends observed across a period

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Positive ions

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Negative ions

Back

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