F325 Definitions

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  • Created by: Ellen
  • Created on: 24-12-13 02:48
Bidentate Ligand
Can donate two lone pairs of electrons to a transition metal ion, to form two coordinate bonds.
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(Bronsted-Lowry) acid
A species that is a proton donor
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(Bronsted Lowry) base
A species that is a proton acceptor
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Buffer Solution
A system that minimises pH changes on addition of small amounts of an acid or a base.
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Complex Ion
A transition metal ion bonded to one or more ligands by coordinate bonds
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Conjugate Acid
A species formed when a proton is added to a base
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Conjugate Base
A species formed when a proton is lost from an acid
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Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
Two species that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton.
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Coordinate Bond
A shared pair of electrons in which the bonded pair has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only.
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Coordination Number
The total number of coordinate bonds formed between the central metal ion and any ligands in a complex ions
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D-Block Element
An element which has its outermost electron in a d-orbital
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Dynamic Equilibrium
The equilibrium that exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction and therefore the concentrations of reactants and products are constant despite constantly interchanging
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(First) Electron Affinity
The enthalpy change required to add one electron to each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1- ions. (Always exothermic)
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(Second) Electron Affinity
The enthalpy change required to add one electron to each atom in one mole of gaseous 1- atoms to form one mole of gaseous 2- ions. (Always endothermic)
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(Standard) Enthalpy Change of Atomisation
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of gaseous forms from the element in its standard state
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(Standard) Enthalpy Change of Formation
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions
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(Standard) Enthalpy Change of Hydration
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of isolated gaseous ions dissolve in water, forming one mole of aqueous ions, under standard conditions
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(Standard) Enthalpy Change of Neutralisation
The energy change that accompanies the neutralisation of an aqueous acid by an aqueous base to form one mole of water, under standard conditions
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(Standard) Enthalpy Change of Solution
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a compound is completely dissolved in water under standard conditions
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Entropy
The quantitative measure the degree of disorder in a system
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Half-Life
The time taken for the concentration of a reactant to reduce by half
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(First) Ionisation Energy
The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions
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(Second) Ionisation Energy
The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous 1+ atoms to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions
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Le Chatelier's Principle
When a system in dynamic equilibrium is subjected to a change, the system readjusts itself to minimise the effect of the change and to restore equilibrium
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(Standard) Lattice Enthalpy
The enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of one mole of an ionic compound from its gaseous ions under standard conditions
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Ligand
A species that can donate a lone pair of electrons to a transition metal ion
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Ligand Substitution / Ligand Exchange
A reaction in which one ligand in a complex ion is replaced by another ligand
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Optical Isomers
Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other
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Oxidation
Loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation number
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Rate of Reaction
The decreased concentration of a reactant or the increased concentration of a product in a given time
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Rate-Determining Step
The slowest step in the reaction mechanism of a multi-step reaction
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Reduction
Gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation number
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Stability Constant
The equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex ion in a solvent from its constituent ions
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Standard Electrode Potential
The electromotive force of a half-cell compared with a standard hydrogen half-cell, measured at 298K with solution concentrations of 1moldm-3 and a gas pressure of 100kPa
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement of atoms in space
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Strong Acid
An acid that completely dissociates i naqueous solution
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Transition Element
A d-block element which forms at least one ion with an incomplete d sub-shell
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Weak Acid
An acid that partially dissociates in aqueous solution
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A species that is a proton donor

Back

(Bronsted-Lowry) acid

Card 3

Front

A species that is a proton acceptor

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A system that minimises pH changes on addition of small amounts of an acid or a base.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A transition metal ion bonded to one or more ligands by coordinate bonds

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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