F325 Definitions; excl. responding to the environment.

  • Created by: Arianne
  • Created on: 08-03-13 10:54
Gene
Length of DNA that codes for (one or more) protein.
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Polypeptide
A polymer consisting of a chain of amino acids connected by peptide bonds.
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Genome
The entire DNA sequence of that organism.
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Protein
A large polypeptide, usually 100+ amino acids.
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Transcription
The creation of a single stranded copy of the DNA coding strand.
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Translation
The assembly of polypeptides at ribosomes.
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Mutation
A change in the amount or arrangement of the genetic material in a cell.
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Chromasome Mutation
Involves changes to parts of or the whole chromasome.
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DNA Mutations
Changes in genes due to changes in nicleotide base sequences.
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Allele
The alternative version of a gene.
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Operon
A length of DNA made up of structural genes and control sites. The control sites are the operator and promoter region.
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Operator and Promoter Regions
They are both genes, but do NOT code for polypeptides.
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Repressor Protein
A protein that binds to the operator and promoter regions to stop the transcription of the structural genes.
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Homeobox Genes
Genes which gontrol the development of the body plan of an organism including polarity and organ positioning.
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Apoptosis
Programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
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Necrosis
Un controlled cell death, usually after trauma, which releases hydrolytic enzumes.
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Phagocytosis
The endocytosis of large solid molecules into a cell.
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Meiosis
Reduction division. The resulting daughter cells have half the original number of chromosomes; they are haploid and are used in sexual reproduction.
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Crossing Over
When lengths of DNA are swapped from one chromatid to another.
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Maternal Chromosomes
The set of chromasomes in an individual cell that is contributed by the egg.
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Peternal Chromosomes
The set of chromosomes in an individual cells that were contributed by the sperm.
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Co-Dominant
Two alleles are co-dominant if they both contribute to the phenotype.
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Genotype
The genetic make-up of an organism.
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Phenotype
The characteristics expressed by the organism.
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Epistasis
The interaction of different gene loci so that one gene locus masks or suppresses the expression of another gene loci.
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Chi-Squared Test
A statistical test to find out if the difference between observed categorical data and expected data is due to chance.
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Discontinuous Variation
Qualitative differences between phenotypes, eg, blood group (O, A, B, AB).
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Continuous Variation
Quanitative differences between phenotypes, eg, height and mass in humans.
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Population
A group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed.
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Gene Pool
The set of genetic information carried by a population.
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Selection Pressure
An environmental factor that confers greater chances of survival to reproductive age on some members of the population.
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Biological Species Concept
A group of similar organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
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Phylogenetic Species Concept
A group of organisms that have similar morphology, physiology, embryology and behaviour and occupy the same niche.
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Monophyletic Group
A group that includes the ancestral organism and all it's dependant species.
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Paraphyletic Group
Includes the most recent ancestor but not all its decendants.
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Vegetative Propagation
The production of structures in an organism that can grow into new individual organisms.
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Tissue Culture
The separation of cells of any tissue type and their growth on a nutrient medium.
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Clone
Has the same identical genetic information as another organism,
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Biotechnology
Technology based on biology and involves the exploitation of living organisms or biological processes for inductrial production.
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Culture
A growth of microorganisms.
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Aseptic Technique
Any measure taken at any point in a biotechnological process to ensure that unwanted microorganisms do notn contaminate the culture that is being grown or the products that are extracted.
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Immobilisation
Any technique where enzyme molecules are held, separated from the reaction mixture.
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Genomics
The study of the whole set of genetic information in the form of base sequences that occur in thye cells of organisms of a particular species.
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Electrophoresis
Similar to chromatography. Separation of different lengths of DNA fragments,in a mixture,is achieved because, as the negatively charged fragments move towards the positive electrode, shorter fragments move more quickly therugh the medium.
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Primer
Short, single stranded lengths of DNA around 10-20 bases long.
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Sticky End
Formed when DNA is cut using a restriction enzyme. It is a short run of unpaired, exposed bases seen at the end of the cut section. Complementary sticky ends can anneal as part of the process of recombining DNA fragments.
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Transgenic
An organism contains DNA that has been added through genetic engineering.
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Biofortified
Contains higher than normal concentrations of a particular nutrient.
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GMO
Genetically Modified Organism
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Liposome
Small spheres of lipid bilayer containing a functioning allele. Acts as a vector to carry the allele into the cell.
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Xenotransplantation
Transplantation of organs/tissue between species.
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Allotransplantation
Transplantation of organs/tissue within the same species.
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Habitat
A place where an organism lives.
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Population
All of the organisms thar live in the same place at the sametime that can be bred together.
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Community
All of the populatuions of all the different species that lives in the same place at the same time and can interact with each other.
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Primary Productivity
The total amount of energy fixedmy photosynthesis.
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Net Primary Productivity
The rate at which carbohydrate accumulates in the tissue of plants in the ecosystem. NPP= PP - respiratory heat loss.
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Succession
Adirectional change in a community of organisms over time.
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Carrying Capacity
The maximum population size that can be maintained over a period of time in a particular habitat.
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Competition
Occurs when resources are not present in adequate amounts to satisfy all the individuals who dependon those resources.
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Coppicing
Cutting a tree trunk close to the ground to encourage new growth.
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Conservation
Maintenance of biodiversity including diversity between species, genetic diversity within species and maintenance of a variety of habitats and ecosystems.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A polymer consisting of a chain of amino acids connected by peptide bonds.

Back

Polypeptide

Card 3

Front

The entire DNA sequence of that organism.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A large polypeptide, usually 100+ amino acids.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The creation of a single stranded copy of the DNA coding strand.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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