F325 Definitions

Rate of reaction
The change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.
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Order
The power to which the concentration of the reactant is raised in the rate equation.
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Rate constant
The constant that links the rate of reaction with the concentrations of the reactants raised to the powers of their orders in the rate equation.
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Half-life
The time taken for the concentration of the reactant to reduce by half.
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Rate-determining step
The slowest step in the reaction mechanism of a multi-step reaction.
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Acid
A species that can donate a proton.
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Base
A species that can accept a proton.
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Conjugate acid-base pairs
A pair of two species that transform into each other in an equilibrium reaction by the gain or loss of a proton.
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Buffer solution
A system that minimises pH changes on addition of small amounts of an acid or a base.
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Enthalpy change of neutralisation
The energy change that accompanies the neutralisation of an aqueous acid by an aqueous base to form one mole of H2O(l), under standard conditions.
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Lattice enthalpy
The enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of one mole of an ionic compound from its gaseous ions under standard conditions.
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Enthalpy change of solution
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a compound is completely dissolved in water under standard conditions.
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Enthalpy change of hydration
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of isolated gaseous ions is dissolved in water forming one mole of aqueous ions under standard conditions.
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Entropy
The measure of disorder in a system.
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Redox
Both reduction and oxidation take place.
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Oxidation number
The measure of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element.
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Half-reaction
Shows the exchange of electrons. There is one half equation each for the oxidation and reduction step.
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Oxidising agent
The species that is reduced - it takes electrons form the species that is oxidised.
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Reducing agent
The species that is oxidised - it gives electrons to the species that is reduced.
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Standard electrode potential
The electromotive force of a half cell compared with a standard hydrogen half cell, measured at 298K with solution concentrations of 1 mol dm-3 and a gas pressure of 100kPa.
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D-block element
Has a d sub-shell which is the highest energy sub-shell.
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Transition element
D-block elements that have an ion with an incomplete d sub-shell.
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Ligand
Donates a pair of electrons to a metal ion to form a coordinate bond.
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Complex ion
A transition metal ion bonded to one or more ligands by coordinate bonds.
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Coordination number
The total number of coordinate bonds formed between a central metal ion and its ligands.
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Bidentate ligand
A ligand that can donate two lone pairs of electrons to the central metal ion to form two coordinate bonds.
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Stability constant, Kstab
The equilibrium constant for the formation of the complex ion in a solvent from its constituent ions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The power to which the concentration of the reactant is raised in the rate equation.

Back

Order

Card 3

Front

The constant that links the rate of reaction with the concentrations of the reactants raised to the powers of their orders in the rate equation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The time taken for the concentration of the reactant to reduce by half.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The slowest step in the reaction mechanism of a multi-step reaction.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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