F324 Definitions OCR

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Substitution
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.
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Electrophile
Species that is attracted to an electron rich centre where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
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Nucleophile
Species attracted to an electron deficient centre where it donates a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
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Triglyceride
A triester of glycerol (propane-1,2,3-triol) and fatty acids.
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(alpha)-amino acid
Has both a basic amine group and an acidic carboxyl group attached to the same carbon.
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Isoelectric Point
The pH at which an amino acid exists as its zwitterion.
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Zwitterion
Dipolar ion (consists of a +ve and a -ve charge). Formed when an amino acid by the donation of H+ ion from a carboxyl (-COOH) to amine (-NH2).
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Structural Isomers
Compunds with the same molecular formula but with a different structural formula.
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Stereoisomers
Species with the same structural formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space.
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Optical Isomers
Non-superimposable mirror images about an organic chiral centre,
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Chiral Centre
Four different groups attached to a carbon atom.
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E/Z Isomerism
An example of stereoisomerism, in terms of restricted rotation about a double bond and the requirement for two different groups to be attached to each carbon of the C=C group.
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Condensation Reaction
A reaction where small molecules react together to form a larger molecule with the elimination of a small molecule (e.g. water).
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Condensation Polymerisation
The joining of monomers with the elimination of a small molecule such as water.
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Peptide
A compund containing amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
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Hydrolysis
The breaking of a bond by its reaction with water (can be acid or base catalysed).
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Biodegradable Polymer
A polymer that breaks down completely into CO2 and H2O.
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Degradable Polymer
A polymer that breaks down into smaller fragments when exposed to light, heat or moisture.
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Reflux
The continuous boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure the reaction takes place without boiling dry.
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Functional Group
An atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound.
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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
The interaction of materials with the low-energy radio wave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Chromatography
An analytical technique that separates components in a mixture between a mobile phase and stationary phase.
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Retention Time
The time taken for a component to pass from the column inlet to detector.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Species that is attracted to an electron rich centre where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.

Back

Electrophile

Card 3

Front

Species attracted to an electron deficient centre where it donates a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A triester of glycerol (propane-1,2,3-triol) and fatty acids.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Has both a basic amine group and an acidic carboxyl group attached to the same carbon.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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