F324 definitions

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arenes
aromatic hydrocarbons, containing one or more benzene rings
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aromatic compunds
Compunds that have at least one benzene ring
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delocalised electrons
slectrons shared between more than two atoms
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electrophile
an atom or group of atoms, that is attracted to an electron-rich centre, where it accepts a pair of electrons, to form a new covalent bond
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nucleophile
an atom or a group of atoms that is attracted to an electron deficient centre, where it donates a pair of electrons, to form a new covalent bond
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electrophilic substitution
a type of substitution reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich centre, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a nev covalent bond
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curly arrow
shows movement of a pair of electrons
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phenol
simplest member of a family of compunds that have an -OH group attached directly to a benzene ring
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functional group
is the part of an organic moleculeresponsible for its chemical reactions
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electronegativity
the measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
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a redox reaction
one in which both reduction and oxidation take place
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reflux
continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixtureto ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry
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peptide
a compund made of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
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zwitterion
dipolar ionic form of an amino acid that is formed by the donation of the hydrogen ion from the carboxyl group to the amino group. Because both charges are present, there is no overall charge
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isoeletric point
the pH value at which the amino acid exists as a zwitterion
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condensation reaction
reaction in which two smaller molecules react together to form a larger molecule with an elimination of a small molecule, such as water
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hydrolysis
involves breaking of a bond by a reaction with water; can be catalysed by acid or alkali
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stereoisomers
species with the same structural formula, but different arrangments of atoms in space
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chiral carbon
a carbon atom attached to four different atoms/groups of atoms
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optical isomers (enantiomers)
steroisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each toher
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biodegradable polymer
polymer that breaks down completely to carbon dioxide and water
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degradable polymer
polymer that breaks down into smaller fragments when exposed to light, heat or moisture
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pharmacological activity
is the beneficial or adverse effect of a drug on living matter
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phase
a physically distinctive form of a substance, such as the solid, liquid, and gaseous states of ordinary matter
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mobile phase
is the phase that moves in chromatography
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stationary phase
is the phase that does not move in chromatography
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Compunds that have at least one benzene ring

Back

aromatic compunds

Card 3

Front

slectrons shared between more than two atoms

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

an atom or group of atoms, that is attracted to an electron-rich centre, where it accepts a pair of electrons, to form a new covalent bond

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

an atom or a group of atoms that is attracted to an electron deficient centre, where it donates a pair of electrons, to form a new covalent bond

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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