F322 Definitions

Define each key term from F322

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Addition polymerisation
The process in which unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers) add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time to form a very long saturated molecular chain (the addition polymer)
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Addition reaction
A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a unsaturated molecule
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Adsorption
The process that occurs when a gas, liquid or solute is held to the surface of a solute or more rarely a liquid
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Alicyclic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with atoms joined together in a ring structure
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Aliphatic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains
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Alkanes
The homologous series with the general formula: C(n)H(2n+2)
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Alkyl group
An alkane with a hydrogen atom removed eg. CH3 alkyl group shown as ‘R’ group
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Biodegradable material
A substance that is broken down naturally in the environment by living organisms
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Average bond enthalpy
The average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by homolytic fission of 1 mol of a given type of bond in the molecules of a gaseous species
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Boltzmann distribution
The distribution of energies of molecules at a particular temperature, usually shown as a graph
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Carbanion
An organic ion in which a carbon atom has a negative charge
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Carbocation
An organic ion with a positive charge
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Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the process
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Cis-trans isomerism
A special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group and a hydrogen atom on each C of a C=C double bond: the z isomer has the H atoms on each carbon on the same side; the E isomer has the H atoms on each carbon on opposite sides
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Curly arrow
A symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond
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Dehydration
An elimination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
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Cracking
The breaking down of long-chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter-chained alkanes and alkenes
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Dynamic equilibrium
The equilibrium that exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal the rate of the reverse reaction
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E/Z isomerism
A type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond mat be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the C=C bond
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Displayed formula
A formula showing the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them
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Addition polymerisation
A very long molecular chain formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers)
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Electrophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Electrophilic addition
A type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where is accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Heterogeneous catalysis
A reaction in which the catalyst has a different physical state from the reactants
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Heterolytic fission
The breaking of an ionic bond with both of the shared electrons going to one of the atoms, forming a cation(+ve) and an anion(-ve)
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Homogeneous catalysis
A reaction in which the catalyst and reactants are in the same physical state, most frequently gaseous or aqueous
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Homologous series
A series of organic compounds with the same functional group, but with each successive member differing by CH2
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Elimination reaction
The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
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Homolytic fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming 2 radicals
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Hydrocarbon
A molecule made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms only
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Hydrolysis
A reaction with water or aqueous hydroxide ions that breaks a chemical compound into two compounds
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Initiation
The first step in a radical substitution in which free radicals are generated by UV radiation
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Le Chatelier’s principle
When a system in dynamic equilibrium is subjected to change, the position of equilibrium will shift to minimise change
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Limiting reagent
The substance in a chemical reaction that runs out first
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Mechanism
A sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a reaction
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Molecular ion M+
The positive ion formed in mass spectrometry when a molecule loses an electron
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Monomer
A small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a polymer
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Nucleophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Pi-bond
The reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p-orbitals
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron
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Hess’ law
If a reaction can take place by more than one route the initial enthalpy is greater than the final enthalpy
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Propagation
The two repeated steps in radical substitution that built up the products in a chain reaction
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Endothermic reaction
A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is greater than the enthalpy of the reactants, resulting in heat being taken in from the surroundings
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Specific heat capacity
The energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1K
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Structural formula
A formula showing the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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Structural isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms
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Substitution reaction
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a compound
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Functional group
The part of an organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
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(Standard) enthalpy change of combustion
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of substance reacts with oxygen under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states
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(Standard) enthalpy change of formation
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions
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(Standard) enthalpy change of reaction
The enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities expressed in a chemical equation under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states.
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General formula
The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series.
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Enthalpy, H
The heat that is stored in a chemical system
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Greenhouse effect
The process in which the absorption and subsequent emission of infrared radiation by atmospheric gases warms the lower atmosphere and the planet’s surface
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Nucleophilic substitution
A type of substitution reaction in which a nucleophile is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Enthalpy cycle
A diagram showing alternative routes between reactants and products which allow indirect determination of an enthalpy change from other known enthalpy changes using Hess’ law
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula but a different arrangement of atoms accross a double bond
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Enthalpy profile diagram
A diagram for a reaction to compare the enthalpy of the reactants with the enthalpy of the products
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Esterification
The reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water
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Termination
The step at the end of radical substitution when two radicals combine to form a molecule
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Fractional distillation
The separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling point (hence also chemical composition) by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column
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Fragmentation
The process in mass spectrometry that causes a positive ion to split into pieces, one of which is a positive fragment ion
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Addition reaction

Back

A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a unsaturated molecule

Card 3

Front

Adsorption

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Alicyclic hydrocarbon

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Aliphatic hydrocarbon

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

Amardeep Singh

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Quality quiz mate, really makes you think.... 76%

kwaku

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This is quality mate!

Aiken

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Loads of questions, helpful quiz, thanks! :) I got 84% first time.

J McCabe

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Excellent resource mate. Well done and thanks.

Evie

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Amazing resource! Obviously took a while to put together!

I think I have a few bones to pick! I have a feeling a few of the answers aren't completely accurate - 3, 39, 41 and 62 possibly. Have a look and tell me if I'm wrong :)

Thanks again

Sammi

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69%

Not so proud of the score, but pleased enough with that number xD

heloise

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Thanks! You've obviously spent a long time on this and it's been really handy for checking any I don't know :) 

:)

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good resource, but have a feeling that 3, 41,47, 49 and 57 may be incorrect answers, so watch out for it!

ben

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3, 41, 57 are incorrect but other than that a splendid resource. Thanks very much :D

Georgina

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WOAH. 62 QUESTIONS.

Georgina

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79%, SAY WHATTT...  P.S - IT DIDNT TAKE ME 2 hOURS TO DO, 

alex bal

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I THINK U MEAN SATURATED IN THE DEFINTIION FOR ADDITION REACTION :D

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