F322 Definitions

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  • Created by: molly
  • Created on: 17-05-16 12:59
empirical formula
the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound,
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molecular formula
the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule,
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general formula
the simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series, ie for an alkane: CnH2n + 2,
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structural formula
the minimal detail that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule, eg for butane: CH3CH
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displayed formula
the relative positioning of atoms and the bonds between them
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skeletal formula
the simplified organic formula, shown by removing hydrogen atoms from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups
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homologous series
a series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2,
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functional group
a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound;
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structural isomers
compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae,
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stereoisomers
compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement in space,
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E/Z isomerism
an example of stereoisomerism, in terms of restricted rotation about a double bond and the requirement for two different groups to be attached to each carbon atom of the C=C group,
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cis-trans isomerism
a special case of EIZ isomerism in which two of the substituent groups are the same;
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homolytic fission
forming two radicals,
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heterolytic fission
forming a cation and an anion;
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‘curly arrow’
the movement of an electron pair, showing either breaking or formation of a covalent bond;
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atom economy
molecular mass of the desired products/sum of molecular masses of all products (x 100%)
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hydrocarbon
a compound of hydrogen and carbon only;
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radical
a species with an unpaired electron;
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electrophile
an electron pair acceptor;
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nucleophile
an electron pair donor;
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standard conditions
298K - 1moldm-3 101kPA
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enthalpy change of reaction
The standard enthalpy change of a reaction is the enthalpy change which occurs when equation quantities of materials react under standard conditions, and with everything in its standard state.
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enthalpy change of formation
The standard enthalpy change of formation of a compound is the enthalpy change which occurs when one mole of the compound is formed from its elements under standard conditions, and with everything in its standard state.
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enthalpy change of combustion;
The standard enthalpy change of combustion of a compound is the enthalpy change which occurs when one mole of the compound is burned completely in oxygen under standard conditions, and with everything in its standard state.
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average bond enthalpy (H positive; bond breaking of one mole of bonds);
(Delta H positive; bond breaking of one mole of bonds);
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le Chatelier’s principle;
If a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the conditions, the position of equilibrium moves to counteract the change.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

molecular formula

Back

the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule,

Card 3

Front

general formula

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

structural formula

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

displayed formula

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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