F321: Module 1: Atoms and Reactions

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  • Created by: Hania
  • Created on: 29-04-14 22:34
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
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Atomic (proton) number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
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Mass (nucleon) number
The number of particles (prtons and neutrons) in the nucleus.
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Ion
A positively or negatively charged atom or (covalently bonded) group of atoms (a molecular ion).
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Realtive isotopic mass
The mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atoms of carbon-12.
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Relative atomic mass, Ar
The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
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Relative molecular mass, Mr
The weighted mean mass of a molecule compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
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Relative formula mass
The weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
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Amount of substance
The quantity whose unit is the mole. Chemists use 'amount of substance' as a means of counting atoms.
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The Avogadro constant, NA
The number of atoms per mole of the carbon-12 isotope.
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Mole
The amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of the carbon-12 isotope.
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Molar mass, M
The mass per mole of a subtance. The units of molar mass are g mol-1/
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Empirical formula
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.
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A molecule
A small groups of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
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Molecular formula
The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
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Molar volume
The volume per mole of a gas. The units of molar volume are dm3 mol-1. At room temperature and pressure, the molar volume is approximately 24.0 dm3 mol-1.
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Concentration
The amount of solute, in mol, dissolved per 1dm3 (1000cm3) of solution.
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Standard solution
A solution of known concentration. Standard solutions are normally used in titrations to determine unknown information about another substance.
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Species
Any type of particel that takes place in a chemical reaction.
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Stoichiometry
The molar relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part in a reaction.
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Acid
A species that is a proton donor.
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Base
A species that is a proton acceptor.
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Alkali
A type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions, OH- (aq) ions.
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Salt
Any chemical compound formed from an acid when a H+ ion from the acid has been replaced by a metal ion or another positive ions, such as the ammonium ion.
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Cation
A positively charged ion.
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Anion
A negatively charged ion.
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Hydrated
A crystalling compound containing water molecules.
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Anhydrous
A substance that contains no water molecules.
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Water of crystallisation
Water molecule that form an essential part of the crystalline structure of a compound.
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Oxidation number
A measure of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element. Oxidation numbers are derived from a set of rules.
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Oxidation
Loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation number.
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Reduction
Gain of electron or a decrease in oxidation number.
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Redox reaction
A reaction in which both reduction and oxidation take place.
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Reducing agent
A reagent that reduces (adds electrons to) another species.
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Oxidising agent
A reagent that oxidises (takes electrons from) another species.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

Back

Atomic (proton) number

Card 3

Front

The number of particles (prtons and neutrons) in the nucleus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A positively or negatively charged atom or (covalently bonded) group of atoms (a molecular ion).

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atoms of carbon-12.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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