F215 Flash cards pt.2

Chi Squared Test
X² = Σ (O-E)²/E
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Criteria for Chi Squared
Sample size must be relatively large. Only raw counts, (no ratios or percentages). No zero scores
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Chi squared uses
For catagorical data. Where there is a strong biological theory that we can use to predict expected values.
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Discontinuous variation
Describes qualitative differences between phenotypes. Clearly distinguishable categories, no intermediate categories.
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Continuous Variation
Describes quantitative differences between phenotypes. WIde range of variation within the population with no distinct categories.
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Genetic basis of Discontinuous variation
Different alleles at a single gene locus have a large effects on the phenotype. Different gene loci have quite different effects on the phenotype. Examples include codominance, dominance and recessive patterns of inheritance.
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Genetic basis of Continuous variation
Traits are controlled by two or more genes. Each gene provides an additive component to the phenotype. Different alleles at each gene locus have a small effect on the p. Polygenes (large number of diff genes) control the polygenic characteristic.
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Population
Group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed.
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Gene Pool
Set of genetic information carried by a population.
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Hardy Weinberg equation
1= p + q (freq of alleles). 1= p² + 2pq + q² (frequency of genotypes)
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What do p and q mean in H-W principle?
p = frequency of dominant allele q= freq of recessive
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Selection Pressure
An environmental factor that confers greater chances of survival to reproductive age on some members of the population.
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Isolating Mechanisms
Geographic (ecological). Seasonal (temporal). Reproductive.
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Biological species concept
A group of similar organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
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Phylogenetic Species concept
A group of organisms that have similar morphology, physiology, embryology and ocupy the same ecological niche.
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Monophyletic group
One that includes and ancestral organism and all its descendent species.
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Cladistics
Hierarchical classification of species, based on their evolutionary ancestry.
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Why is cladistics different from taxonomy?
Focuses on evolution rather than similarities. Places importance on using objective and molecular analysis. Uses DNA/RNA sequencing. Uses computer programmes and nucleic acid data to produce dendo/cladograms that represent evolutionary tree of life.
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Clade
Any group of organisms with hapolytes that are more similar to each other than any other group
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Paryphyletic group
Includes the most recent ancestors but not all its descendants. A monophyletic group with 1 or more groups excluded.
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Advantages of asexual reproduction
Quick, allowing rapid reproduction. Completed if sexual reproduction fails/not possible. All offspring have the genetic info to enable them to survive in their environment.
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Disadvantages of asexual reproduction
Does not produce genetic variety. So genetic paternal weakness will be in all offspring.
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Vegetative Propogation
Production of structures in an organism that can grow into new individual organisms. Offspring are clones of parents.
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Vegetative propogation in elm trees
Destruction of the main trunk causes growth in the form of root suckers, or basal sprouts. These grow from meristem tissure in the trunk close to the ground, where less damage is lilkely to have occured. Form a clonal patch.
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Two main methods of artificial veg. propogation
Taking cuttings (treat stem with plant growth hormones and plant). Grafting (shoot section of woody plant joined to an already growing root and stem)
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Micropropogation by callus tissue culture
Explant taken from shoot tip. Placed in growth medium. Cells in tissue divide. Leave a mass of undifferentiated cells (callus). Single callus cells on growth medium, encourage shoot growth. Growing shoots on plant h that encourage root growth.
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Cloning by splitting of embryos
Collect eggs and sperm. In vitro fertilisation. Grow in vitro 16 cell embryo. Split embryo into segments. Implant into surrogate mother. Calfs a clone of female.
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Cloning by nuclear transfer method.
Remove mammary cells from udder (Sheep A). Fusion of mammary cell and enucleated ovum (Sheep B) (electro-fusion). Cell with B cytoplasm and A nucleus. Culture in tied oviduct of sheep. Recover early embryo. Surrogate mother. Clone of Sheep A.
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Advantages of cloning animals
High value animals can be cloned in large no.'s. Rare animals can be cloned to preserve species. Genetically modified animals can be quickly reproduced.
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Disadvantages of cloning animals
Animal welfare (chickens unable to walk). Excessive genetic uniformity in plants make it unlikely to cope with environmental changes. Unclear as to the long-term health of a clone.
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Advantages of using cloned cells
Won't be rejected by immune system. Put an end to organ donors waiting. USe cloned cells to generate any cell type, they're totipotent. Less dangerous than operations.
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Possibilities for non-reproductive cloning (therapeutic cloning)
Regeneration of heart muscle cells, repair of nervous tissue. Repairing spinal cord.
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Biotechnology
Technology based on biology and involves exploitation of living organisms or biological processes, to improve agriculture, animal husbandry, food science, medicine and industry.
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Uses of microorganisms in biotech - why are they favoured?
Grow rapidly in favourible conditions. Often prduce proteins/chemicals that are given out into the surrounding medium and harvested. Genetically engineered to produce specific products. Grow well at low temps. Grown anywhere in the world.
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Primary Metabolites
Substances produced by an organism as part of its normal growth. Amino acids, proteins, enzymes etc. Production matches Growth in population.
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Secondary Metabolites
Substances produced by an organism that is not part of its normal growth. Antibiotic chemicals etc. Begins after main growth sequence and does not match growth in pop.
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Asepsis
Absence of unwanted microorganisms
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Aspectic Technique
Any measure taken at any point in a biotechnologial process to that unwanted microorganisms do not contaminate the culture that is being or the products that are being extracted
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Batch Culture
Culture of microorganisms that takes place in a single fermentation. Products are serperated from the mixture at the end of the fermentation process
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Continuous Culture
Culture of microorganisms set up in a reaction vessel to which substrates are added and from which products are removed as the fermentation process continues
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What will unwanted microorganisms do?
Compete with culture microorganisms for nutrients and space. Reduce yield of useful products. Cause spoilage. Produce toxic chemicals. Destroy the culture microorganisms and their products.
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Advantages of using immobilised enzymes
Products don't neeEnzymes not in products so purification/downstream processing costs are low. Enzymes immediately available for reuse. Immobilised enzymes are more stable because immobilising matrix protects enzyme molecule
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Disadvantages of using immobilised enzymes
Immobilisation requires additional time/equipment/materials so more expensive to set up. Less active because do not mix freely with substrate. Conctamination is costly to deal with because whole system needs to be stopped.
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Downstream processing
Extraction of enzyme from fermentation mixture.
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Methods for immobilising enzymes
Adsorption (hydrophobic/ionic lnks to clay/porous carbon/glass beads). Covalent bonding. Entrapment. Membrane seperation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Criteria for Chi Squared

Back

Sample size must be relatively large. Only raw counts, (no ratios or percentages). No zero scores

Card 3

Front

Chi squared uses

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Discontinuous variation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Continuous Variation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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