F214 Respiration

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  • Created by: Phil
  • Created on: 13-06-13 20:18
What is respiration?
The process whereby energy stored in complex organic molecules is used to make ATP.
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Why is energy needed?
To drive biological processes. All the processes that take place within an organism is know collectively as metanolism.
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5 examples of metabolic processes that require energy?
1.Active trans, most of an organisms energy is used for this. 2.Secretion 3.Endocytosis 4.Replication of DNA 5.Movement - flagella, muscle contraction.
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DIAGRAM ATP
.
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Describe the structure of atp
An adenosine group attatched to a ribose sugar and 3 phosphates.
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.What is an anabolic reaction?
Biochemical reaction where large mols are synthsised from smaller ones/
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What is a Catabolic reaction?
A biochemical reaction where larger mols are hydrolysed to produce smaller ones.
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Decscribe the process of the hydolysis of ATP to Adenosine, including the ammount of energy released after each step.
1.ATP + H2o -> ADP + H2o (releasing 30.6 KJmol^-1 of energy +Pi). 2.ADP+H2o -> AMP+H2o (releasing 30.6 KJmol^-1 of energy +pi). 3.AMP+H2o -> Adenosine (releasing 14.2KJmol^-1 of energy + Pi).
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PROCESS GLYCOLYSIS
G
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Where does glycolysis take place?
In the cytoplasm of all living things that respire.
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Products of glycolysis for one molecule of glucose?
Net gain of 2 mols of ATP, two mols of reduced NAD and two mols of pyruvate.
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What happens to the products of glycolysis?
Reduced NAD carries the H atoms to the inner mitochondrial membranes to be used during oxidative phos. Pyruvate are actively tans into mitochondiral matric (unless there is a lack of o2..)
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What is an oxidative reaction?
A reaction that involves the loss of electrons/ The loss of Hydrogen and the gain of o2.
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What is a Reductive reaction?
A reaction that involves the addition of electrons. The addition of electrons and the loss of o2.
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What co-enzymes are used during respiriation and what are their functions??
NAD and Co-enzyme A. NAD -Carries Hydorgen atoms. CoA carries acetate groups.
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DIAGRAM STRUCTURE OF MITOCHONDRIA.
.
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How does the structure of the matrix of the mitchondria help it carry out it's functions?
1.Contains enzymes that catalyse stages of aerobic resp. 2.Contrains NAD. 3.Oxaloacetate. 4.Mitonchondrial DNA codes for essential proteins/enzymes. 5.Mito ribosomes, where the proteins are assembled.
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How does the structure of the inner membrane of the mitchondria help it carry out it's functions?
1. Different lipid comp than the outerlayer, impermeable to most small ions including h-atoms. 1.Folded into many crista - large SA. 3.Has electron carrier sys and ATP sunthase enzymes embedded on it. 4.High protein to phospholipid ratio.
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How does the structure of the out membrane of the mitchondria help it carry out it's functions?
1.Contains proteins, forming channels for mols such as pyruvate.
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How does the structure of the electron tansport chains of the mitchondria help it carry out it's functions?
1. Contain hundreds of oxireductase enzymes-involved in oxidation and reduction reactions. 2.Some of the electron carriers have a co-enzyme that pumps protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space.
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How does the structure of ATP synthase of the mitchondria help it carry out it's functions?
1.Allows protons to pass through them. 2. Are large and pretude from the inner membrane into the matrix.
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What are ATP synthase also known as?
Stalked particles.
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Where does the link reaction take place?
In the Mitochondrial matrix.
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PROCESS LINK REACTION
.
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What are the products of the link reaction for each mol of glucose?
2x reduced NAD and 2x Co2.
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What is the overall effect of the links reaction?
The conversion of pyruvate to acetate.
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What 2 enzymes are involve in the links reaction, and what is their function?
1.Pyruvate dehydrogenase, remove h-atoms from pyruvate. 2.Pyruvate decarboxylase, removes a carboxyl group from pyruvate (carboxyl group eventually becomes Co2.
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PROCESS THE KREBS CYCLE.
;
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Where does the Krebs cycle take place?
In the mitochondrial Matrix.
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How many cycles occur for one mol of glucose?
2
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What are the products of the krebs cycle for one mol of glucose?
6 reduced NAD, 2 Reduced FAD, 4Co2 2ATP.
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PROCESS OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
...
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What ist he overall affect of oxidative phosphorylation?
The formation of ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP in the presence of O2, which is the final electron acceptor.
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PROCESS CHEMIOSOMOSIS.
..
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EXPIREMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE THEORY OF CHEMIOSMOSIS.
...
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Why is the maximum yield of ATP never reached in aerobic resp?
1.Some h-stoms leak across the mito membrane 2.Some ATP is used to transport pyruvate into the mito. 3.Some ATP is used to nring Hydrogen from reduced NAD made during glycosis, in the cytoplasm, into the mito.
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What is the difference between anaerobic respiration and aerobic respiration?
Only glycolysis takes place in anaerobic, this is due to the leack of oxygen, so it cannot be used as the last electron acceptor. Krebs cycle stops as there is no NAD- they are all reduced. Pyruvate from glycolysis is reduced, so links reaction does
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Decribe the process of anaerobic repiration in Mammals.
1. lycolysis takes place. 2.The resulting pyrucate combines with a H-atom (provided by the rNAD) forming lactate and oxidised NAD. 3.The enzyme Lactate dehydrogenase is used to catalyse this reaction. 4.Resulting in oxidised NAD and Lactate
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Decribe the process of anaerobic respiration in yeast?
1.Pyruvate is decarboxylated (pyruvate decarboxylase) to become Ethanal. 2.Ethanal combines with H from the rNAD to form Ethanol (cat by ethanol dehydrogenase)..4.Resulting in oxidised NAD and Ethanol.
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What happnes to the resulting Oxidised NAD in both anaerobic reactions?
It is reused in glycosis to accept another H-atom from glucose.
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What happens to the resulting Lactate?
It is carried in the blood to the liver. When more o2 is available it is converted back to pyruvate to be used in the krebs cycle.
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What is a repiratory substrate?
An organic substance that can be used for respiration.
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What is the differencein relativew energy values of carbohydrates, lipid and protein repiratory substrates?
The higher the number of hydrogen atoms per mole, the hugher the relative energy value, as more NAD mols can be reduced and used in the electron transport chain.
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Which of the three respiratory substrates have the higest/lowest relative energy?
Lipids have the highest, Carbohydrates have the lowest with proteins in the middle.
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PROCESS REPIRATORY SUBSTRATES.
....
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PROCESS HOW AMINO ACIDS, LACTATE AND LIPIDS ARE USED IN RESPERATION.
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