F211 EXCHANGE AND TRANSPORT

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Name the features of an efficient gas exchange surface.
large SA:V ratio A barrier permeable to the gas being exchanged. Thin barrier for diffusion. Maintained diffusion gradient
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Describe the function of cartilage in the lungs.
Plays a structural role. Supports the trachea and bronchi and prevents them from collapsing; holding them open.
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Describe the function of cilia in the lungs.
Move in a synchronised pattern to waft mucus on the lining of the lungs up to the throat to be swallowed.
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Describe the function of goblet cells in the lungs.
Secrete mucus, which traps tiny unwanted particles in the lungs to prevent infection
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Describe the function of smooth muscle in the lungs.
Can contract and constrict the airways, reducing the flow of air to the alveoli so they don't burst.
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Describe the function of elastic fibres in the lungs.
stretch and recoil to maintain the original shape of the trachea bronchi and bronchioles.
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Explain the meaning of the term tidal volume
The volume of air moved in and out of the lungs with each breath when you are at rest
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Explain the meaning of the term vital capacity
The largest volume of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs in any one breath.
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What are the 3 main factors that dictate the need for a transport system in an organism?
Size, Activity and SA:V ratio
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Describe the cardiac cycle.
DIASTOLE- filling / ATRIAL SYSTOLE - atria contract / VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE - ventricles contract
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How do valves work?
They ensure that blood flows in the right direction. They are opened and closed by changes in the blood pressure in the various chambers of the heart.
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Describe the co-ordination of the heart beat in steps
SAN - DELAY - AVN - PURKYNE TISSUE
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State some adaptations of xylem that adapt it to its function
Narrow tubes / Pits / Lignin / No end walls / No cell contents /
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State some adaptations of phloem that adapt it to its function
Sieve tubes / plasmodesmata / Companion cells
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Where does the symplast pathway go?
Through the cell cytoplasm
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Where does the apoplast pathway go?
Through the cell walls
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What blocks the appals pathway when water moves across a root?
The CASPARIAN STRIP
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What part of the root does the water move across during Transpiration?
The cortex
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Define Transpiration.
The loss of water by evaporation from the aerial parts of the plant
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What factors affect the rate of transpiration?
Number of leaves / Number and size of stomata / Cuticle / Light / Temp / Humidity / Wind / Water availability
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Explain what a 'xerophyte' is.
A plant that is adapted to reduce water loss so that it can survive in very dry and arid conditions.
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Define translocation
The transport of assimilates throughout the plant, in the phloem
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Sucrose is released from the phloem:
A SOURCE
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Sucrose is removed from the phloem:
A SINK
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EXAMINER TIP!
Water molecules do not flow along a gradient. They diffuse down a water potential gradient.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the function of cartilage in the lungs.

Back

Plays a structural role. Supports the trachea and bronchi and prevents them from collapsing; holding them open.

Card 3

Front

Describe the function of cilia in the lungs.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the function of goblet cells in the lungs.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the function of smooth muscle in the lungs.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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