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Exchange surface
A specialised area adapted to make it easier for molecules to cross from one side of the surface to the other
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The process of removing materials from the cell by fusing vesicles containing the material with the plasma membrane
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Facilitated diffusion
The passive movement of molecules across down their concentration gradient which is adided by transport (carrier) protein molecules. No metabolic energy is required
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A state in which the chambers in the heart contract out of rhythm
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A term used to describe plant tissue where the cells have lost turgor & are not firm
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Fluid mosaic (model)
The model of cell membrane structure proposed by Singer & Nicholson a phospholipid bilayer with proteins 'floating' in it
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Sex cells usually haploid (one set of chromosomes) Male & female gamates can fuse during sexual reproduction to form zygotes (diploid)
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Gaseous exchange
The movement of gases by diffusion across a barrier such as the atreous wall
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Gated channels
Protein channels found in cell membranes which can be opened or closed in response to cell signals
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A lipid with carbohydrate molecules attached
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A protein with carbohydrate molecules attached
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Goblet cells
Mucus-secreting cells in epithelial tissue
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Golgi body
Membrane-bound organelle in eukaryote cells. Its functions are to modify proteins made at the rough endoplasmic reticulum into glycoproteins, to package proteins for secretion outside the cell, to make lysosomes, in plant cells to secrete carbohydrat
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Guard cells
In pairs these form the stomatal pore in the epidermis plants. They control the opening & closing of the pore by changes in their turgidity
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The iron containing prosthetic group found in haemoglobin
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The protein that carries oxygen in the red blood cells
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Haemoglobinic acid
The acid produced when haemoglobin takes up hydrogen ions
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The rupturing of animal cell surface membranes & subsequent release of their contents when animal cells are placed in a solution of higher water potential & water enters of osmosis
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A cell or organism that has one set of chromosomes/one copy of each chromosome
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Chromosomes that have the same genes at the same ioci. Members of an homologous pair of chromosomes pair up during meiosis
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Hydrostatic pressure
Pressure created by a fluid pushing against the sides of a container
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Intercostal muscles
Muscules between the ribs responsible for moving the rib cage during breathing
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The phase of the cell cycle where synthesis of new DNA & organelles takes place
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White blood cells
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A waterproofing susbtance that impregnates the walls of sylem tissue. Lignin gives wood its strength
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A cavity surrounded by a cell wall in cells such as xylem vessels which have lost their cell contents. Also used for the central cavities of blood vessels
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Lymphatic system
A system of lymph nodes & lacteals with lymph fluid
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A type of white blood cell activated as part of the immune response
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Membrane bound vesicles made by pinching off from the Golgi body. They usually contain digestive enzymes
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The number of times greater an image is than the object
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Nuclear division that results in the formation of cells containing half the number of chromosomes of the adult cell
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Meristem cells
Undifferentiated plant cells capable of rapid cell division
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Messenger RNA (mRNA)
The type of RNA polynucleotide involved in protein sunthesis. Carries the information coding for a polypeptide from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
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The phase of mitosis where the chromosomes line up at the equator of the spindle
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Components of the cell cytoskeleton,Dia of about 24mm & length varying from several micrometres involved in mitosis cytokinesis & movement of vesicles within cells
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Folds in the membrane of a cell that increase its surface area
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The organelle found in cells in which most of the ATP synthesis occurs. It is the site of aerobic respiration
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Nuclear division that results in the formation of cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell
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A slimy substance secreted by goblet cells in animl epithelial tissues. It is made up mostly of glycoproteins & is used to protect &/pr lubricate the surface on to which it is secreted.
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Describes muscle tissue (heart muscle) that generates its own contractions
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A respiratory pigment (protein) with a higher affinity for oxygen than haemoglobin
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Phagocytic white blood cells. They engulf & digest bacteria. Neutrophils have a many lobed nucleus & a granular cytoplasm due to the large numbers of lysosomes present
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Nuclear envelope
The double membrane structure surrounding the nucleus in eukaryotic cells
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A collection of tissues that work together to perform a specific overall function or set of functions within a muliticellular organism
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Structure insdie a cell. Each organelle has a specific function
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The movement of water molecules from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential across a partially permeable membrane
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Oxygen tension
The amount of oxygen in the air expressed as the pressure created by the presence of oxygen expressed in kilopascals (kPa)
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Describes blood carrying oxygen in the form of oxyhaemoglobin
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Haemoglobin with oxygen molecules attached
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Relatively unspecialised plant cells. They have living contents & thin permeable cellulose cell walls. They may be able to photosynthesise store food or support young plants
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Partial pressure
The proportion of total pressure provided by a particular gas as part of a ixture of gases
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Partially permeable membrane
A membrane that will allow some molecules to pass through but will bot allow some others to pass through
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A layer of cells in the root that lies hust inside the endodemis. It usually consists of meristematic cells whose division gives rise to lateral roots
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A tissue in plants that is used to transport dissolved sugars & other substances
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A molecule consisting of a glycerol molecule two fatty acid molecules & a phosphate group conalently bonded together. Phospholipids form the basis of cell membranes
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The process of endocytosis involving the bulk movement of liquids into a cell
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Pits (or bordered pits)
Thin areas in the lignified wall of xylem tissue cells that allow communication between adjacent cells
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Plasma cells
Mature B-lymphocytes (white blood cells) that secrete a specific kind of antibody
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Plasma membrane/cell surface membrane
The membrane that surrounds every cell forming the selectively permeable boundary bewteen the cell & its environment
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Plasma proteins
Proteins made in the liver that are found in blood plasma
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A fine strand of cytoplasm that links the protoplasm of adjacent plant cells through a thin area of cell wall called a pit
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Detachment of the plasma membrane from the cell wall as the cytoplasm shrinks when water is lost from a plant cell
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Fragments of cells in the blood that play a part in blood clotting
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Stem cells capable of differentiating to become a limited number of cell types found in the organism
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Apparatus used to measure water uptake in a leafy shoot & so to estimate rate of transpiration
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An organism with cells that do not contain a true nucleus
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The phase of mitosis where the chromosomes become visible as a pair of sister chromatids joined at the centromere
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Pulmonary circulation
The circulation of the blood through the lungs
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Pulmonary vein
The vein carrying oxygenated blood fron the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
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Purkyne tissue
Specialised tissue (muscle fibres) in the septum of the heart that conducts the electrical stimulus from the sinoatrial node to the ventricles
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The ability to distinguish two separate points as distinct from each other
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Ribonucleic acid a single stranded polynucleotide molecule that exists in three forms. Each form plays a part in the synthesis of proteins within cells
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Root hair cells
Cells in the epithelium of roots that have long extensions to increase surface area for the absorption of water & minerals
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The release of a substance made inside the cell using the process of exocytosis
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Semilunar valves
Valves between the ventricles & the main arteries leading out of the heart which orevent backflow of blood
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Sexual reproduction
The production of a new individual formed by the fusing of gametes from two different parent oranisms. The offspring have unique combinations of alleles inherited from both parents.
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Seive tube element
A cell found in phloem tissue through which sap sontaining sucrose is transported.It has very little cytoplasm no nucleus & non thickened cellulose cell walls with the end walls perforated to form sieve plates through which sap passes from element to
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Simple diffusion
The movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration
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Single circulatory system
A circulation in which blood flows throguh the heart once during each circulation of the body
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A part of a plant that removes sugars from the phloem
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Sinoatrial node
The patch of tissue that initiates the heartbeat by sending waves of excitation over the atria
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Smooth muscle
A type of muscle (involuntary muscle) found mostly in certain inernal organs & involved in involuntary movements such as peristalsis
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A liquid with dissolved solids
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A liquid that dissolves solids
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A part of the plant that release sugars into the phloem
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A structure consisting of protein fibres found in eukaryotic cells during cell division. Chromosomes become attached to the spindle at the centromeres & spindle fibres guide the movement of chromosomes to opposite end of the cell at telphase
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Stem cells
Undifferentiated cells that are capable of becoming differentiated to a number of possible cell types (eg omniptent, totipotent,pluripotent)
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Pore in leaf epidermis surrounded by two guard cells. Changes in turgidity of the guard cells cn open or close the stoma. Stomata allow gaseous exchange in plants & also allow transpiration
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The gel like matrix found in chloroplasts. The membranes of the thylakoids/grana are embedded in the stoma
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Symplast pathway
The route taken by water through the cytoplasm of cells in a plant
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Systemic circulation
The circulation that carries blood around the body excluding the circulation to the lungs
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The stage of the heart cycle in which heart muscle contracts to pump blood
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Final phase of mitosis. Two new nuclear envelopes form around the two new nuclei
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Tendinous cords
String like tendons used to attach the atrioventricular valves of the heart to the sides of the ventricle wall. Sometimes called heart strings
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Flattened membrane sacs found in chloroplasts which hold the pigments used in photosynthesis & are the site of the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis. A stack of thylakoids forms a granum
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A group of similar cells that perform a particular function
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Tissue fluid
The fluid derived from blood plasma that surrounds the cells in a tissue
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Undifferentiated cell that is capable of differentiating into any kind of specialised cell. All cell in an embryo are totipotent as are meristem cells in plants. Embryonic stem cells are totipotent
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The windpipe leading from the back of the mouth to the bronchi
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The assembly of an mRNA molecule that is a copy of the DNA coding strand (& complementary to the template strand)
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Transfer RNA (tRNA)
A type of RNA polynucleotide involved in protein synthesis. It tranpsorts amino acids to the ribosomes to be added to the growing polypeptide chain
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The movement of sucrose & other substances up & down a plant
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The loss of water vapour from the aerial parts of a plant due to evaporation
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Describes a cell that is full of water as a result of entry of water due to osmosis. When the pressure of the cell wall prevents more water entering the cell is said to be turgid
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The detailed structure of the internal components of cells as revealed by the electron microscope rather than by the light microscope. Sometimes called fine structure
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Vacuolar pathway
The pathway taken by water in plants as it passes from cell to cell via the cell cytoplasm & vacuole
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Vascular tissue/bundle
The transport tissue in a lant usually found as a bundle containing both sylem & phloem
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Vena cava
Either of two large veins that carry deoxgenated blood from the body back to the heart
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Breathing movement of disphragm & rib cage that bring air into & out of the lungs
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The lower chambers in the heart
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A membrane bound sac found in cells & used to transport materials around the cell
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Water potential('1')
A measure of the ability of water molecules to move freely in solution. Measures the potential for a solution to lose water water moves from a solution with high water potential to one of lower water potential. Water potential is decreased by the pre
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Water vapour potential
The potential energy of water vapour in gas it is used to indicate how much water vapour is present
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A plant specially adapted to living in dry areas
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A plant tissue containing xylem vessels ( & other cells) that are used to transport water in a plant & provide support
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Diploid cell made from fusion of male & female gametes
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Card 2


The process of removing materials from the cell by fusing vesicles containing the material with the plasma membrane



Card 3


The passive movement of molecules across down their concentration gradient which is adided by transport (carrier) protein molecules. No metabolic energy is required


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Card 4


A state in which the chambers in the heart contract out of rhythm


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Card 5


A term used to describe plant tissue where the cells have lost turgor & are not firm


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