Eyewitness Testimony

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What does the term 'reconstructive memory' mean?
the brain fills in blanks and reconstructs the memory even though it now might not be true
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What did Bartlett's (1932) study find?
that the brain does fill in blanks that are false memories and that culture and time effects the memory
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What did Carmichael's (1932) study find?
that memories can be altered by cues, therefore supporting Bartlett that reconstructive memories can be false
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How do we recognise unfamiliar faces?
by looking at the hairline and style (Ellis et al 1979)
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What is the cross-race effect?
Buckout and Regan (1988) found that it is harder to recognise faces that are a different ethnicity to you
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What did Bruce and Young (1998) say about facial recognition?
rather than recognising each feature individually we recognise faces when we group all of the features together- making it difficult to recognise partial faces e.g. just the eyes- supported by the Thatcher Effect (Thompson 1980)
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Why do criminals wear balaclavas?
Roberts and Bruce (1988) noses and eyebrows are useful for identifying the gender of a person- covering these up makes it more difficult to identify
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How can mistakes be mad in recognising faces?
Brown et al (1977) said that it's easy for us to recognise a face but more difficult to know where from- this has led to many misconvictions
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What is the attribution theory?
the use of internal and external attributions to explains your own and other people's behaviour (Heider, 1958)
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What are internal attributions?
dispositional- explaining behaviour by saying 'it's because of their personality'
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What are external attributions?
situational- explaining behaviour due to situation you're in
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What is the FAE?
fundamental attribution error- overemphasising the character of someone and de-emphasising the situation they were in
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What is the actor-observer effect?
explaining your own behaviour through situational factors but other people's through dispositional
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What did Barjonet (1980) say about the FAE?
found that people were more likely to blame an accident on the driver rather than bad driving conditions etc.
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What did Walster (1966) say about actor-observer effect?
gave ppts a story about a parked car rolling down the hill- the more serious the outcome the more they blamed it on driver fault, the less serious the more sitational
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How does the role of emotion effect memory?
it can either improve it or reduce recall depending on the amount of emotional arousal
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What is the Yerkes-Dodson law?
memory recall is improved in times of high emotion up to a certain point- but in times of really high emotion, recall is reduced
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What evidence is there to support the Yerkes-Dodson law?
Deffenbacher et al (2004) did a mata-analysis of studies and found that emotion has a negative impact on recall
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What is the weapon effect?
Loftus et al (1987) suggests that if there is a weapon at the scene of the crime recall is poorer because the eyewitness is concentrating on that weapon rather than what is going on around them
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What supporting evidence is there for this?
Johnson and Scott (1978) sat two groups of ppts in separate rooms and as they waited for the experiment to start in group 1 a man walked in with a pen covered in grease and in group 2 a man walked in with a knife covered in blood
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What did Johnson and Scott (1978) find?
the ppts that had been in the room with the man with the knife had a poorer recall of the man compared with group 1
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Card 2

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What did Bartlett's (1932) study find?

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that the brain does fill in blanks that are false memories and that culture and time effects the memory

Card 3

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What did Carmichael's (1932) study find?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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How do we recognise unfamiliar faces?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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What is the cross-race effect?

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