Eyesenck

What are introverts?
Prefer to spend time alone, quiet, introspective, well ordered and predictable contexts preferred
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What are extroverts?
Prefer excitement and stimulation, the company of others, externally driven, like parties and friends
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What is the system for extraversion?
The ascending reticular activating system
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What is the ARAS structure?
in the brain stem connected to the thalamus, hypothalamus and cortex
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What does it control?
Overall cortical arousal
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What does ARAS act as?
Gate to arousal
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What is the Introverts level of activity?
They have higher levels of activity in the ARAS
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What do introverts ARAS allow?
Too much arousal in
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What do introverts seek?
contexts with low stimulation
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What do extraverts do?
They have lower levels of activity in the ARAS
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What do extraverts have?
Lower levels of activity in the ARAS
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What do extraverts allow?
Too little arousal in,
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What do they seek out?
Extraverts seek out contexts with high stimulation
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Hebb 1955?
Notion of optimal level of arousal
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What is meant by optimal?
Appropriate for given task
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What law?
Yerkes-Dodson
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What should the arousal hypothesis show?
Higher levels of cortical activity that Es (EEG), more autonomic nervous system activity than ES
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What did it originally predict/
differences should be evidence at baseline, later revised to predict differences in reactivity
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What is a neurotic?
Emotionally unstable, anxious, fearful, tense, moody, irritable, depressed, poor sleep, slow to return to 'even keel' after stress
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What is an emotionally stable person?
Even tempered, quite to return to equilibrium after stress, calm, slow to react emotionally
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What did Eysenck said the biological basis for neuroticism?
Some people have a more responsive sympathetic nervous system (limbic system)
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What does the ANS do?
Controls emotional responsiveness to emergency. Prepare us for a fight or flight
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People who are high in Neuroticism are what?
Hypersensitivity in ANS
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Therefore, what do they do?
REact more to threatening environments
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What is psychoticism?
Some individuals who otherwise look like neurotics did not have anxiety component
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Extraversion and neuroticism alone did not what?
Account for variance in personality observed
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Psychoticism made up what?
High in P are aggressive, cold, impulsive and lack empathy
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Most individuals are low in?
P
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What is the hierarchical structure?
Supertrait, Facet level, habitual response level, specific response leve
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What is an example hierarchical structure?
Extraversion- lively -sociable
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What are the approaches to PEN?
EFA (questionnaire), large number of measurements, Eysenck personality questionnaire, short version 12 items per superfactor+L (social desirability), faking good, Barnum effects
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What is factor analysis?
Principle component analysis (Exploratory analysis)
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What do people do?
Categorise into clusters relating to latent variable or component
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What does this examine?
The joint variation across the items and establishes the pattern of relationship to each other, stars with the first component
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What is PCA useful for?
Data reduction (Latent components/factors/dimensions)
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What is determined?
Which variables or observations fit most with the components
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The number of components should be?
Less than original number of observations and account for high proportion of the variance (compared with the variance explained by the individual observations
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What are the five main factors to support biological underpinning of traits?
Physiological substrate, hereditary or genetic contribution, similar traits in non humans, cross cultural evidence, temporal stability
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What is the structural evidence?
Extraversion and cortical thickness in lateral prefrontal cortex, even after controlling for age and sex
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What was the cortical thickness in the fushiform cortex like in Extraverts?
Negative correlation even after controlling for age and sez
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Good evidence for E and N in terms of what?
Brain substrates
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What is extraversion linked to?
Reward processing centres (Clark and Watson, 2008) and increased volume in medial OFC
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What has the medial OFC been linked to?
Approach behaviours
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Where is the medial OFC?
It is at the bottom of the frontal cortex
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What is neuroticism negatively linked with?
Cortical thickness in the oribtofrontal cortex
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Deupe and Collins, 1999
Neuroticism linked to threat processing, and decreased volume in right dorsomedial PFC and Posterior hippocampus, and portions of basal ganglia and midbrain
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What increased in volume?
Mid cingulate cortex, extending into the white matter of cingulate gyrus and the caudate
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What is it linked to?
Threat detection and regulation of emotion
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What do studies typically show?
Genetic differences account for 50% variance in E and N, 30% for P
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What does Shared environment offer?
Little explanation
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What do high levels of explanation come from?
Genetic sources maintain even when peer report from individuals who only know one twin, however no genes of major effect found
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What is the issue of measurement in traits in non humans?
Inter-observer reliability, test retest reliability
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What is Across subject examplee?
Is hyena A friendlier than hyena B?
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what is a within subject example?
(IS hyena A friendlier than he is timid?)
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What is inter-observer reliability?
Problem of shared stereotypes, But would be applied across whole species not single instances, Are some species more easy to judge? Difficult to track or inaccessible, behaviours limited by environment-are some traits more 'rateable',
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What did Darwin say?
Domestication of animals, but wolves to dogs may have been more evolution being useful to humans rather than humans consciously breeding (Morey)
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Griffin, 1992
Fear of anthromorphism (recognising human characteristics in non humans
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Gosling and John (1999)
19 factiorial studies of personality in 12 species non humans
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What is the issue of measurement
Some good support that animals described as extraverted do engage in more exploratory behaviours, for example. However, danger of using the same criteria to judge the personality trait as is used for criterion
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What is the problem in jangle fallacy?
In much animal personality research makes it difficult to evaluate the extent to which E, N and P are truly seen
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Fear of antrhopomorphism?
Humans are just TOO different from animals (language, culture, technology, ethics) any personality viewed is projection.
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Gosling and John 1999?
Striking consistency in judgements of many animals personality across species
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Gosling and John, 1998?
Different factor structures for personality in animals
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Wemelsfelder et al 2000?
Behaviours identified fit the trait descriptions
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Cross cultural evidence, Caruso et al (2001)
Good overall reliability for E and N, less so for P. Reliability affected by standard deviation of scores. As SD increases, reliability can reduce. Reliability also affected by skew
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Barrett et al?
34 countries factor structure of EPQ-R robust compared to UK sample
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What is temporal stability for neuroticism?
(interval 6 - 30 years) r = .56 - .83, median = .64
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What is the temporal stability for extraversion?
(interval 6 - 30) r = .56 - .82, median = .64.
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What about P?
Less stability and reliability
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What is the problem with the Eysneck's model?
A theory of personality should be more than descriptive
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What is needed?
Neuro-psychology of traits, Eysenck's model has biological basis relating to cortical and limbic sensitivity
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What is social behaviour?
E- earlier and more frequent sexual activity, I better than academic achievement
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What is Perception?
E adjust to louder tones better E higher pain threshold
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what is conditioning?
Is conditioning better?
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What are the drug effects?
Those low in E require more sedation
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What does EEG show?
Those low in E show greater arousal Those low in E are more reactive In marginally arousing tasks, those low in E show greater cortical arousal via EEG (Hagemann et al, 2009)
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What is face processing?
Those high in P have reduced attention capture by angry faces (Miskovic et al., 2010)
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What is antisocial behaviour?
Those high in P are at greater risk of antisocial behaviour across the lifespan (Klinteberg et al, 2008)
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Gray, Pickering and Gray, 1994?
Association between P and dopamine sensitivity
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Avoidance of ambiuous stimuli?
Those high in N avoid stimuli which are similar to stimuli associated with punishment (Lomm et al 2010
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What is social anxiety?
Those high in N experience more anxiety after a face to face compared to computer mediated interaction (Rice & Markey, 2009)
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What about stress response?
Associated with greater reactivity (BP and total peripheral resistance) from social task rather than maths tasks (Jonassaint et al, 2009)
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What are the challenges?
Costa and McCrae: P = unstable - made of 2 constructs (their A and C) Digman - alpha and beta - developmental approach Hampson - ignores social constructionism Mischel - ignores interaction with situation
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Card 2

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What are extroverts?

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Prefer excitement and stimulation, the company of others, externally driven, like parties and friends

Card 3

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What is the system for extraversion?

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Card 4

Front

What is the ARAS structure?

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Card 5

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What does it control?

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