What are introverts?
Prefer to spend time alone, quiet, introspective, well ordered and predictable contexts preferred
1 of 83
What are extroverts?
Prefer excitement and stimulation, the company of others, externally driven, like parties and friends
2 of 83
What is the system for extraversion?
The ascending reticular activating system
3 of 83
What is the ARAS structure?
in the brain stem connected to the thalamus, hypothalamus and cortex
4 of 83
What does it control?
Overall cortical arousal
5 of 83
What does ARAS act as?
Gate to arousal
6 of 83
What is the Introverts level of activity?
They have higher levels of activity in the ARAS
7 of 83
What do introverts ARAS allow?
Too much arousal in
8 of 83
What do introverts seek?
contexts with low stimulation
9 of 83
What do extraverts do?
They have lower levels of activity in the ARAS
10 of 83
What do extraverts have?
Lower levels of activity in the ARAS
11 of 83
What do extraverts allow?
Too little arousal in,
12 of 83
What do they seek out?
Extraverts seek out contexts with high stimulation
13 of 83
Hebb 1955?
Notion of optimal level of arousal
14 of 83
What is meant by optimal?
Appropriate for given task
15 of 83
What law?
16 of 83
What should the arousal hypothesis show?
Higher levels of cortical activity that Es (EEG), more autonomic nervous system activity than ES
17 of 83
What did it originally predict/
differences should be evidence at baseline, later revised to predict differences in reactivity
18 of 83
What is a neurotic?
Emotionally unstable, anxious, fearful, tense, moody, irritable, depressed, poor sleep, slow to return to 'even keel' after stress
19 of 83
What is an emotionally stable person?
Even tempered, quite to return to equilibrium after stress, calm, slow to react emotionally
20 of 83
What did Eysenck said the biological basis for neuroticism?
Some people have a more responsive sympathetic nervous system (limbic system)
21 of 83
What does the ANS do?
Controls emotional responsiveness to emergency. Prepare us for a fight or flight
22 of 83
People who are high in Neuroticism are what?
Hypersensitivity in ANS
23 of 83
Therefore, what do they do?
REact more to threatening environments
24 of 83
What is psychoticism?
Some individuals who otherwise look like neurotics did not have anxiety component
25 of 83
Extraversion and neuroticism alone did not what?
Account for variance in personality observed
26 of 83
Psychoticism made up what?
High in P are aggressive, cold, impulsive and lack empathy
27 of 83
Most individuals are low in?
28 of 83
What is the hierarchical structure?
Supertrait, Facet level, habitual response level, specific response leve
29 of 83
What is an example hierarchical structure?
Extraversion- lively -sociable
30 of 83
What are the approaches to PEN?
EFA (questionnaire), large number of measurements, Eysenck personality questionnaire, short version 12 items per superfactor+L (social desirability), faking good, Barnum effects
31 of 83
What is factor analysis?
Principle component analysis (Exploratory analysis)
32 of 83
What do people do?
Categorise into clusters relating to latent variable or component
33 of 83
What does this examine?
The joint variation across the items and establishes the pattern of relationship to each other, stars with the first component
34 of 83
What is PCA useful for?
Data reduction (Latent components/factors/dimensions)
35 of 83
What is determined?
Which variables or observations fit most with the components
36 of 83
The number of components should be?
Less than original number of observations and account for high proportion of the variance (compared with the variance explained by the individual observations
37 of 83
What are the five main factors to support biological underpinning of traits?
Physiological substrate, hereditary or genetic contribution, similar traits in non humans, cross cultural evidence, temporal stability
38 of 83
What is the structural evidence?
Extraversion and cortical thickness in lateral prefrontal cortex, even after controlling for age and sex
39 of 83
What was the cortical thickness in the fushiform cortex like in Extraverts?
Negative correlation even after controlling for age and sez
40 of 83
Good evidence for E and N in terms of what?
Brain substrates
41 of 83
What is extraversion linked to?
Reward processing centres (Clark and Watson, 2008) and increased volume in medial OFC
42 of 83
What has the medial OFC been linked to?
Approach behaviours
43 of 83
Where is the medial OFC?
It is at the bottom of the frontal cortex
44 of 83
What is neuroticism negatively linked with?
Cortical thickness in the oribtofrontal cortex
45 of 83
Deupe and Collins, 1999
Neuroticism linked to threat processing, and decreased volume in right dorsomedial PFC and Posterior hippocampus, and portions of basal ganglia and midbrain
46 of 83
What increased in volume?
Mid cingulate cortex, extending into the white matter of cingulate gyrus and the caudate
47 of 83
What is it linked to?
Threat detection and regulation of emotion
48 of 83
What do studies typically show?
Genetic differences account for 50% variance in E and N, 30% for P
49 of 83
What does Shared environment offer?
Little explanation
50 of 83
What do high levels of explanation come from?
Genetic sources maintain even when peer report from individuals who only know one twin, however no genes of major effect found
51 of 83
What is the issue of measurement in traits in non humans?
Inter-observer reliability, test retest reliability
52 of 83
What is Across subject examplee?
Is hyena A friendlier than hyena B?
53 of 83
what is a within subject example?
(IS hyena A friendlier than he is timid?)
54 of 83
What is inter-observer reliability?
Problem of shared stereotypes, But would be applied across whole species not single instances, Are some species more easy to judge? Difficult to track or inaccessible, behaviours limited by environment-are some traits more 'rateable',
55 of 83
What did Darwin say?
Domestication of animals, but wolves to dogs may have been more evolution being useful to humans rather than humans consciously breeding (Morey)
56 of 83
Griffin, 1992
Fear of anthromorphism (recognising human characteristics in non humans
57 of 83
Gosling and John (1999)
19 factiorial studies of personality in 12 species non humans
58 of 83
What is the issue of measurement
Some good support that animals described as extraverted do engage in more exploratory behaviours, for example. However, danger of using the same criteria to judge the personality trait as is used for criterion
59 of 83
What is the problem in jangle fallacy?
In much animal personality research makes it difficult to evaluate the extent to which E, N and P are truly seen
60 of 83
Fear of antrhopomorphism?
Humans are just TOO different from animals (language, culture, technology, ethics) any personality viewed is projection.
61 of 83
Gosling and John 1999?
Striking consistency in judgements of many animals personality across species
62 of 83
Gosling and John, 1998?
Different factor structures for personality in animals
63 of 83
Wemelsfelder et al 2000?
Behaviours identified fit the trait descriptions
64 of 83
Cross cultural evidence, Caruso et al (2001)
Good overall reliability for E and N, less so for P. Reliability affected by standard deviation of scores. As SD increases, reliability can reduce. Reliability also affected by skew
65 of 83
Barrett et al?
34 countries factor structure of EPQ-R robust compared to UK sample
66 of 83
What is temporal stability for neuroticism?
(interval 6 - 30 years) r = .56 - .83, median = .64
67 of 83
What is the temporal stability for extraversion?
(interval 6 - 30) r = .56 - .82, median = .64.
68 of 83
What about P?
Less stability and reliability
69 of 83
What is the problem with the Eysneck's model?
A theory of personality should be more than descriptive
70 of 83
What is needed?
Neuro-psychology of traits, Eysenck's model has biological basis relating to cortical and limbic sensitivity
71 of 83
What is social behaviour?
E- earlier and more frequent sexual activity, I better than academic achievement
72 of 83
What is Perception?
E adjust to louder tones better E higher pain threshold
73 of 83
what is conditioning?
Is conditioning better?
74 of 83
What are the drug effects?
Those low in E require more sedation
75 of 83
What does EEG show?
Those low in E show greater arousal Those low in E are more reactive In marginally arousing tasks, those low in E show greater cortical arousal via EEG (Hagemann et al, 2009)
76 of 83
What is face processing?
Those high in P have reduced attention capture by angry faces (Miskovic et al., 2010)
77 of 83
What is antisocial behaviour?
Those high in P are at greater risk of antisocial behaviour across the lifespan (Klinteberg et al, 2008)
78 of 83
Gray, Pickering and Gray, 1994?
Association between P and dopamine sensitivity
79 of 83
Avoidance of ambiuous stimuli?
Those high in N avoid stimuli which are similar to stimuli associated with punishment (Lomm et al 2010
80 of 83
What is social anxiety?
Those high in N experience more anxiety after a face to face compared to computer mediated interaction (Rice & Markey, 2009)
81 of 83
What about stress response?
Associated with greater reactivity (BP and total peripheral resistance) from social task rather than maths tasks (Jonassaint et al, 2009)
82 of 83
What are the challenges?
Costa and McCrae: P = unstable - made of 2 constructs (their A and C) Digman - alpha and beta - developmental approach Hampson - ignores social constructionism Mischel - ignores interaction with situation
83 of 83

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are extroverts?


Prefer excitement and stimulation, the company of others, externally driven, like parties and friends

Card 3


What is the system for extraversion?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the ARAS structure?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does it control?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Eysenck resources »