Extraction of Metals

HideShow resource information
What are metals often found with?
Sulphur or Oxygen
1 of 46
What are rocks called with a high percentage of metals?
Ores
2 of 46
What are the most abundant metals in the Earth's crust?
Aluminium and Iron
3 of 46
What are Sulphides converted to before extraction?
Oxides
4 of 46
what is the equation for turning Zinc into an oxide?
2ZnS + 3 O2 ----------> 2ZNO + 2SO2
5 of 46
What can Sulphur dioxide cause?
Acid Rain
6 of 46
What can happen to the Sulphur dioxide?
It can be collected and converted to Sulphuric acid in controlled conditions
7 of 46
What is this equation?
SO2 + H2O + 1/2 O2 ----------> H2SO4
8 of 46
What is Coke?
It is an impure form of carbon
9 of 46
How is it obtained?
Heating coal in the absence of air
10 of 46
Why is carbon not used sometimes?
The reaction with carbon is so high that the process is uneconomic
11 of 46
What happens with reactive metals when reacted with carbon?
Carbides form
12 of 46
What else is also used as a reduction agent?
Hydrogen
13 of 46
What reaction is hydrogen used in?
The reduction of Tungsten
14 of 46
How does the extraction of Iron occur?
Using coke and tall brick towers, called blast furnaces that are up to 70m high
15 of 46
How much iron can a blast furnace produce daily?
10,000 tonnes a day
16 of 46
What happens at the bottom of the furnace?
Coke burns in a blast of hot air
17 of 46
What is heat generated by?
a exothermic reaction so that temperature is around 2000K
18 of 46
what is formed from this reaction?
CO2
19 of 46
Which then reacts with what? to form what?
excess carbon to form CO
20 of 46
What is CO?
It is a reducing agent
21 of 46
What does it reduce?
Iron oxide
22 of 46
to produce?
Molten Iron
23 of 46
What is wrong with using Carbon?
CO2 is a greenhouse gas and CO is toxic
24 of 46
Why cant Tungsten be extracted by carbon?
It forms a Carbide
25 of 46
What is wrong with using hydrogen?
There are risks of explosionand problems with storing it because it is flamable
26 of 46
What are three advantages of using hydrogen?
No pollution, readily available, will give higher purity than carbon
27 of 46
Why is titanium a valuable metal?
It is abundant, low density, corrosion resistant, extracted by reaction with a more reactive metal
28 of 46
what is the first step in extracting titanium?
TiO2(solid) is converted to TiCl4(liqiud) at 900degrees
29 of 46
What is the second step in extracting Titanium?
TiCl4 is purified by fractional distillation in an Ar atmosphere
30 of 46
What is the third step in extracting titanium?
Extracted by Mg or Na in an Ar atmosphere at 1300K
31 of 46
Why is a batch process expensive?
Energy is lost when reactor is cooled down after stopping
32 of 46
Why else is the production of Titanium expensive?
The expensive cost of Na and Mg and high temps are needed at both stages
33 of 46
When is electrolysis used?
When a reactive metal can't be extracted by the reduction of carbon
34 of 46
Why is electrolysis not used sometimes?
When the metal needs to be pure
35 of 46
What state must the aluminium oxide be in for electrolysis?
It must be molten
36 of 46
Where is aluminium dissolved?
Into the molten cryolite(lowers the melting point of the aluminium oxide)
37 of 46
What happens without the use of cryolite?
Aluminium oxide melts at too high temperature which makes the process uneconomic
38 of 46
What is the electrode reaction at the cathode?
al3+3e- ---------> Al
39 of 46
What is the electrode reaction at the anode?
2O2- -------> O2 + 4e-
40 of 46
What recycling metals do?
Saves resources, creates less waste and scrap removed from countryside or landfill
41 of 46
How much energy does recycling aluminium save?
uses less than 5% of energy
42 of 46
What are the disadvantages of recycling metals?
cost assossiated with collecting, sorting and transporting metals
43 of 46
How is copper often extracted?
With the use of scrap iron
44 of 46
How is the aqueous solution of copper made?
By reacting the ore with sulphuric acid
45 of 46
Compared with high temperatures of carbon what does this do?
uses less energy, work with lower grade ores and would work with low quality scrap iron
46 of 46

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are rocks called with a high percentage of metals?

Back

Ores

Card 3

Front

What are the most abundant metals in the Earth's crust?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are Sulphides converted to before extraction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is the equation for turning Zinc into an oxide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Extraction of metals resources »