Extracting metals and making alloys

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 25-05-14 14:46
What is a metal ore?
A rock containing a metal/metal compound in high enough concentration to make it economic to extract the metal,
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How might the economics of an ore change over time?
as the metal becomes rarer, an ore may be used that was considered too expensive to mine before,
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How do you make a metal from a metal oxide?
Reduction-have its oxygen removed,
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What does the reduction method depend on?
Hpw reactive the metal is
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How are very reactive metals extracted?
By electrolysis
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How are less reactive metals extracted?
By carbon or carbon monoxide,
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Why is gold found as a native metal and not a compound?
As it is so unreactive
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Where are transition metals found?
Between groups 2 and 3
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What are common properties of transition metals?
-They are metals, -They are good conductors of heat and electricity, -They can be hammered or bent into shape easily
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What is used to extract iron from iron ore?
A blast furnace
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What is an example of an iron ore?
haematite
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How is the oxide removed from iron oxide?
By reduction
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What is used to reduce and replace iron oxide and why?
Carbon is used as it is more reactive than carbon so it displaces the iron,
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What is the equation of this reduction reaction?
Iron oxide + Carbon-> Iron + Carbon Dioxide
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What other than carbon can be used to reduce iron oxide?
Carbon monoxide
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What is the process called when copper is heated in a furnance for extraction?
Smelting
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What is the next process used to purify the copper?
Electrolysis
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In the elctrolysis of copper, what is on the cathode?
Pure copper
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In the elctrolysis of copper, what is on the anode?
Impure copper
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What happens in the electrolysis?
The positively charged copper ins move towards the negative electrode and are deposited as copper metal,
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What are the two new ways of extracting iron ore without ores?
phytomining and bioleaching
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What does phytomining involve and how does it work?
-Involves plants which absorb copper compounds through their roots which they concentrate. These plants are then burned to produce an ash that contains copper compounds,
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What does bioleaching involve and how does it work?
Some bacteria absorb copper compounds which produce solutions called leachates which contain copper compounds,
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How can also be used to displace copper sulfate to copper?
Iron
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What kind of density does aluminium and titanium have and what does this mean?
They have a low density which means they are light compared to their size,
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How are aluminium and titanium corrosive?
They have a thin layer of oxides on their surafce which prevents air and water getting to the metal,
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Give three examples of what alumiunium is used in?
-Aircrafts, -Trains, -Overhead cables, -Saucepans, -Cooking foil
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Give three examples of what titanium is used in?
-Fighter aircraft, -Artifical hip joints, -Pipes in nucleur power stations
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Why is the reduction of aluminium and titanium expensive?
as they can't be extracted with carbon or electrolysis but they have many stages which requires lots of energy
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Why is aluminium recyled extensively?
As less energy is needed to produice recycles aluminium than to extract it,
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What are the advantages of recycling?
It preserves limited resources and requires less energy so it can cause less damage to the environment
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What is an alloy?
A mixture of two or more elements where at least one element is an alloy,
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Why are alloys harder than metals?
As alloys contain atoms of different sizes which distort the regular arrangements of atoms which makes it more difficult for the layers to slide over each other,
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Card 2

Front

How might the economics of an ore change over time?

Back

as the metal becomes rarer, an ore may be used that was considered too expensive to mine before,

Card 3

Front

How do you make a metal from a metal oxide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the reduction method depend on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How are very reactive metals extracted?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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