Extra research methods

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What is interval data?
Data are measured using units of equal intervals.
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What is an abstract?
A summary of the study concerning the aims, the hypothesis, the method, the results and conclusions.
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What is a theory?
A collection of general principles used to explain specific observations and facts.
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Why is theory construction a major feature of how science works?
Facts and observations are meaningless on their own.Theories are constructed in order to make sense of these facts and observations.These theories can predict and understand natural occurrences around us.deduction or induction.
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What is a pilot study?
A small scale trial of a study to test any aspects of the design, with a view of making improvements.
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What is meant by social desirability bias?
Participants wish to present themselves in a good light.
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How do you calculate mean? What are the strengths and weaknesses?
Adding up all the scores and dividing by the number of scores. Makes use all the values of the data, but can be unrepresentative.Not appropriate for nominal data.
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What is the median? What are the strength and weaknesses?
It is the middle value in an ordered list. It is not affected by extreme scores but is not as sensitive as the mean because not all values are reflected. Not appropriate for nominal data.
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What is the mode? What are the strength and weaknesses?
Is the value that is most common in the data set. It is the only method appropriate when the data is in categories,i.e.nominal data. It is not a useful way of describing data when there are several modes.
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What is the range? What are the strength and weaknesses?
Calculated by finding the difference between the highest and lowest score in the data set. This is easy to calculate but may be affected by extreme values.
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What is standard deviation? What are the strength and weaknesses?
This expresses the spread of data around the mean. This is a more precise measure because all the values of the data are taken into account. However, some characteristics of the data are not expressed, such as the influence of extreme values.
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What is meant by reflexivity?
The process of self examination in qualitative research, questioning how the processes of research and analysis have an effect on research outcomes in order to improve the validity of such research.
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What is triangulation?
Comparing 2 or more views of the same thing.
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Card 2

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What is an abstract?

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A summary of the study concerning the aims, the hypothesis, the method, the results and conclusions.

Card 3

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What is a theory?

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Card 4

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Why is theory construction a major feature of how science works?

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Card 5

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What is a pilot study?

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