External/extrinsic aids

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Dictionaries
To understand the meaning of words in an Act. Must be taken from time the Act was passed for the purpose of historical language (only ex. aid used in Literal Rule)
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Text books/academic writings
Provide an understanding of the background in which the Act was passed
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Royal commission reports
Not permanent. House of L's stated in the case of Black Clawson International Ltd that official reports may be considered as evidence of the pre-existing state of the law
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Law commission reports
Permanent body that reviews the law. Can make recommendations on changing the law
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Case law from other jurisdictions
Cases decided in other countries can assist a J in understanding how the Act could be interpreted in England/Wales
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Hansard
Records the daily reporting of debates in Parliament-helps understand purpose of making an Act. Can only be used when words in Act are ambiguous, obscure or lead to an absurdity and where the Min gives a clear statement to resolve this (DvJ and PvH)
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European Convention of Human Rights
Since the introduction of the Human Rights Act 1998 courts are now obliged to interpret legislation in line with convention rights under section 3 of the HRA 98
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Provide an understanding of the background in which the Act was passed

Back

Text books/academic writings

Card 3

Front

Not permanent. House of L's stated in the case of Black Clawson International Ltd that official reports may be considered as evidence of the pre-existing state of the law

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Permanent body that reviews the law. Can make recommendations on changing the law

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Cases decided in other countries can assist a J in understanding how the Act could be interpreted in England/Wales

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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