Expressionism

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What happened to pieces at the end of the 19th century? [3]
Pieces began to get longer, grander and vaster than anything produced before.
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Before expressionism, how did composers keep the structure interesting? [4]
They used keys, harmonies, themes and textures
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Give 2 examples of Romantic composers. [2]
Brahms and Wagner
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What type of notes did Wagner and Brahms use? [1]
Chromatics
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What are chromatics? [1]
Notes that don't belong to the main key
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What started to happen when composers started to use many chromatics in their pieces? [2]
They lost the character of the main key and pieces started to go atonal.
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Why didn't old structures work? [1]
They relied on contrasting keys
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What is impressionism? [2]
Music/art that describes a feeling or experience
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Name 2 impressionist composers. [2]
Ravel and Debussy
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How did impressionist composers use instruments? [1]
They used different timbres to paint musical pictures
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What did impressionist composers use chords for? [1]
They were used for colour
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What does klangfarbernmelodie literally means? [3]
Tone Colour Melody
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What scale did Debussy write pieces in? [1]
The whole tone scale.
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What does the whole tone scale sound like? [2]
Hazy and dreamy
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When and where was expressionism strongest? [2]
At the end of World War 1 in Germany
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Why was there feelings of disillusionment and discontent in Germany? [2]
Because of living conditions and restrictions imposed on their country
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What did composers want to express in expressionism? [2]
Their strong feelings and emotions
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What can expressionist works make you feel like? [2]
You can feel uncomfortable and it can be harder to digest than other pieces.
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Name 7 of the key features of expressionism? [7]
Atonality, intense emotion, use of pitch range, exploring the tone colours, timbre is as important as the melody, extreme dynamics and the pieces tend to be short.
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What style did Arnold Schoenberg first write in? [1]
He wrote in a romantic style
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Why did he leave Germany in 1933? [2]
Because he was Jewish and the Nazis condemned his music as 'decadent'
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What tonality did his music move to and what did it coincide with? [3]
His music moved to be atonal and this coincided when his friend had committed suicide and his wife left him
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What did Schoenberg reflect throughout his music? [1]
Intense emotions
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Why does Schoenberg use pitch? [2]
For the effect, rather than their relationships with each other.
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When were titles added to his pieces and why? [2]
13 years after it was written and because Schoenberg thought that music expresses more than words, so the pieces did not need a title.
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What is a hexachord? [2]
6 notes played together to form a chord or a melody
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How did Schoenberg come up with the idea of a hexachord? [1]
He used his name
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What is the structure of a hexachord? [1]
STS(T+S)S
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How can hexachords be played (as a chord)? [2]
They can be played as a chord, which can be spread across different instruments.
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How can hexachords be played (as melody)? [2]
They can be used to create a melodic line, which can be spread across instruments
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How many semitones are there in an octave? [1]
12
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What notes are used to create a compliment? [1]
The remaining notes left from a hexachord
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What is the principal line? [2]
It shows that the instrument has the most important line. And is marked from a 'H' symbol.
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What is the secondary line? [2]
It shows that the instrument has the second most important line. And is marked by a 'N' symbol.
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How big is the orchestra for Peripetie? [1]
It is large
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What does the large orchestra produce? [3]
Contrasting texture, dynamics and timbre
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How many woodwind is the piece written for? [1]
Quadruple
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List all of the instruments that require 3 people to play the part. [4]
Flutes and piccolo, clarinets and bass clarinets, bassoons and contrabassoons, oboes and cor anglais.
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What does the brass section use to create effect? [1]
Mutes
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What instruments are in the percussion section? [3]
Cymbals, timpani and xylophone
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What is the structure of the piece? [1]
Free rondo
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What is the name for short melodic ideas?[1]
Melodic fragments
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What is contrasting in this piece? [2]
Texture and tempo
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What does klangfarbernmelodie mean?
The melody is passed from instrument to instrument
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What does peripetie mean?
Sudden changes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Before expressionism, how did composers keep the structure interesting? [4]

Back

They used keys, harmonies, themes and textures

Card 3

Front

Give 2 examples of Romantic composers. [2]

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What type of notes did Wagner and Brahms use? [1]

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are chromatics? [1]

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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