Exploring social inequality and difference -3- Ethnicity

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Ethnic Inequalities
Topic 3
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Verotec (2007)
Super-diversity: There are a greater variety of individuals and groups living in the UK. They are highly diverse. They range from high-flying professionals to those with little education or training.
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Cashmore (1984)
Racial Prejudice: People hold racist beliefs and values. It is based on actions that go beyond beliefs. It is possible to be prejudice without discriminating.
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The Runnymede Trust (1997)
Identified 4 elements of 'Islamaphobia': 1) Prejudice 2) Discrimination 3) Exclusion 4) Violence
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Berthoud (1997)
Pakistani and Bangladeshi households are among the most likely social groups to experience poverty.
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Berthoud (1997) CRITICISMS
Recent changes in educational success, suggest that this pattern is likely to change.
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Heath and Yi Cheung (2006)
Ethnic Penalty: A disadvantage experienced by ethnic minorities in the workplace compared with white British workers. Groups who are most likely to experience this are: Bangladeshis, Pakistanis and Caribbean men and women.
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Heath and Yi Cheung (2006) Continued
The ethnic penalty is more common for first-generation migrants than second-generation.They said it could not be explained by:age, education or birthplace.This suggests discrimination within the workplace,the research doesn't specifically state this.
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Iganski and Payne (1999)
First-generation immigrants were disadvantage because of the decline in manufacturing-based economy in the UK.Second-generation may have gained from the move to a service-sector economy.This social mobility isn't true for all ethnic minorities.
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Francis (2006)
Cultural factors are very improtant when explaining British-Chinese success. They argue that iven when boys engage in laddish behavour, they still maintain their commitment to their education.
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Francis (2006) Continued
The British-Chinese parents show interest in their education and also spend money to invest in it. They don't agree with the white British culture of "Just let them have fun".
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Strand (2008)
Schools are institutionally racist.They are less likely to enter Afro-Caribbean students for higher-tier tests at 14 for Science and Maths.This effected which GCSEs they were entered for.Teachers perceived them as disruptive and not high ability.
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Castles and Kosack (1973) - Marxist
Capitalism generates racism. They can use ethnic minorities as cheap labour. Racism serves to justify low wages and poor living conditions. The victimisation of ethnic minorities e.g. media (Hall et al. 1979) exploit and weaken the proletariat.
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Van Dihk (1991)
The media use negative language and the lack of refrence to quotes from ethnic minority sources creates a biased report that demonstrates a white perspective on news stories.
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Parsons (1966) - Functionalist
Described ethnic minorities as second class but believed that they would eventually become part of a shared value system.
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Parsons (1966) - Functionalist CRITICISMS
Assimilation does not seem to be happening for many ethnic groups, particularly Muslims, in the UK. Were you live has an impact on how well an individual can assimilate.
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Miles (1980) - Neo-Marxist
Ethnic minority groups are part of the same class structure but they form a racialised part of it. The concept 'racialised class fractions' explain the existence of ethnic minorities in the petite bourgeoisie or middle class.
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Rex and Tomlinson (1979) - Weberian
Immigrants have not assumed the same rights as the working class in the UK, nor were they (in general) absorbed into this class within a generation of immigration.
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Rex and Tomlinson (1979) - Weberian Continued
Immigrant minorities develop their own political strategies to organise themseves for self defence; Asians aim at capital accumulation and social mobility; African Caribbeans may withdraw from competing and unite around creating a black identity.
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Parkin (1968) - Weberian
Terms ethnic minority groups as: negatively priviledged status groups, being kept out of privileged status groups by social segregation.
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Modood and Berthoud (1997) - Postmodern
We should work on hybrid identities and code-switching, by not looking at the commonalities and the portrayal of ethnic minorities as being victims, but looking at the difference and diversity of experience.
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Card 2

Front

Super-diversity: There are a greater variety of individuals and groups living in the UK. They are highly diverse. They range from high-flying professionals to those with little education or training.

Back

Verotec (2007)

Card 3

Front

Racial Prejudice: People hold racist beliefs and values. It is based on actions that go beyond beliefs. It is possible to be prejudice without discriminating.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Identified 4 elements of 'Islamaphobia': 1) Prejudice 2) Discrimination 3) Exclusion 4) Violence

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Pakistani and Bangladeshi households are among the most likely social groups to experience poverty.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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