Explanations of Schizophrenia

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What are the two types of explanations of schizophrenia?
Biological and psychological
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Where is schizophrenia more common?
Among biological relatives of the person with schizophrenia.
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What did Joseph (2000) find?
Found concordance rate for MZ twins of 40% and 7% for DZ twins
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What does the use of 'blind' diagnoses do?
Produces lower concordance rate for MZ twins, but still much higher than DZ twins
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What did Tienari et al (2000) find?
If the biological mother of an adopted child is schizophrenic, 6.7% of adoptees are also schizophrenic
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Evaluate Joseph's twin study.
Environments of MZ twins may be more similar than for DZ twins.
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What may differences in concordance rates reflect?
Environmental similarity rather than the role of genetic factors
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Suggest why schizophrenia runs in families, other than heritability.
Expressed emotion
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Evaluate Tienari's adoption study.
Adopted children from schizophrenic backgrounds may be adopted by a particular type of adoptive parent, making conclusions difficult to draw.
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What do many studies have to include to show genetic influences.
'Schizophrenic spectrum disorders'
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What does the evolutionary perspective suggest?
Schizophrenia may have had an adaptive advantage
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What does the dopamine hypothesis state?
Neurons that transmit dopamine fire too easily or too often which leads to symptoms of schizophrenia
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What do schizophrenics have abnormally high levels of?
D2 receptors
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What do large doses of amphetamines cause?
Hallucinations and delusions
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What do antipsychotic drugs do?
Block dopamine and eliminate symptoms
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What have we learned from research into treating Parkinson's disease?
Treatment with L-dopa raises dopamine levels and can therefore trigger schizophrenic symptoms
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What did Haracz (1982) find?
Elevated dopamine levels in post-mortems of schizophrenics who had taken medication
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What have neuroimaging studies failed to provide?
Convincing evidence for altered dopamine activity in schizophrenics.
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How does the psychodynamic view explain schizophrenia?
It's a result of regression to the pre-ego state and attempts to re-establish ego control
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How do further features of schizophrenia appear?
By individuals attempting to understand their disorder
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What may these individuals do?
Reject feedback from others and develop delusional beliefs.
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Evaluate the psychodynamic approach to schizophrenia.
There is little evidence to support it
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What is assumed to be the key influence in the development of schizophrenia?
Behaviour of parents, but this may be a consequence rather than a cause
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What did Meyer-Lindenberg et al (2002) find?
The cognitive explanation is supported by neurophysiological evidence
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How does the double-bind theory explain schizophrenia?
Contradictory messages from parents prevent coherent construction of reality, which leads to schizophrenic symptoms.
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Prior to schizophrenic episodes, what have patients reported?
Twice as many stressful life events
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How does expressed emotion explain schizophrenia?
Family communication style involving criticism, hostility and emotional over-involvement
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What does this lead to?
Stress beyond impaired coping mechanisms and so schizophrenia
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How does the labelling theory explain schizophrenia?
Symptoms of schizophrenia are seen as deviant from rules ascribed to normal experience. The diagnostic label leads to self-fulfilling prophecy.
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What link does some evidence challenge?
The link between life events and schizophrenia
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What type of evidence is this?
Correlational, not causal
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What does Tienari's adoption study show the importance of?
Family relationships in the development of schizophrenia
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What did Berger (1965) find?
Schizophrenics recalled more double-bind statements from mothers - supports the theory
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What has the expressed emotion (EE) theory led to?
Effective therapy for relatives
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What did Scheff (1974) find?
13 of 18 studies were consistent with predictions of labelling theory
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Where are expressed emotion effects much less common?
In non-individualist cultures
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Card 2


Where is schizophrenia more common?


Among biological relatives of the person with schizophrenia.

Card 3


What did Joseph (2000) find?


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Card 4


What does the use of 'blind' diagnoses do?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did Tienari et al (2000) find?


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