Explanations of Forgetting

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Peterson and Peterson (1959)
asked participants to remember a word list, found that if they were prevented from rehearsing the word list recall dropped from 80% in 3 seconds to 20% in 18 seconds
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Watkins et al (1973)
similar to p&p'59 in that he asked participants to recall notes played to them but asked them to hum in-between hearing the notes and recalling them, found that recall dropped significantly because it prevented rehearsal
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Shallice (1967)
found that a combination of decay and displacement causes forgetting in the STM but displacement is the more dominant of the two
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Waugh and Norman (1965)- proving decay
used a list of numbers and asked participants to give the following number to the probe- found that recall was better when the numbers were given faster compared to one per second- proves decay
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Waugh and Norman (1965)- proving displacement
used list of numbers and asked participants to give the following number to the probe- recall was better the further on the probe was in the list proving displacement
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Lashley (1931)
used rats to find a relationship between memory and the amount of brain removed- taught them a maze then removed parts of their brain and found that there was a relationship
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Jenkins and Dallenbach (1924)
participants asked to recall a series of nonsense syllables, those that had 8 hours of sleep recalled more than those awake for 8 hours- if it was decay there wouldn't be a difference, interference?
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Underwood and Postman (1960)
used word pairs from three lists- asked to remember pairs AB and then AC- recall was poorer than the CG proving proactive and retroactive interference
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Tulving and Potska (1971)
gave ppts categorised word lists e.g. furniture, animals- found that those with less categories to remember had better recall- proving interference but then found that if the category name was given recall would improve- proving cue-dependency
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Goodwin et al (1969)
those who forgot things when drunk could remember them better when drunk again
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Miles and Hardman (1998)
found that things learned when exercising could be recalled more easily when exercising again
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Card 2

Front

similar to p&p'59 in that he asked participants to recall notes played to them but asked them to hum in-between hearing the notes and recalling them, found that recall dropped significantly because it prevented rehearsal

Back

Watkins et al (1973)

Card 3

Front

found that a combination of decay and displacement causes forgetting in the STM but displacement is the more dominant of the two

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

used a list of numbers and asked participants to give the following number to the probe- found that recall was better when the numbers were given faster compared to one per second- proves decay

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

used list of numbers and asked participants to give the following number to the probe- recall was better the further on the probe was in the list proving displacement

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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