Explanations of Dysfunctional Behaviour - Behavioural

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What is the general behaviourist explanation of dysfunctional bhaviour?
Behaviourists believe that all behaviour is learnt (tabula rasa) so therefore dysfunctional behaviour is learnt.
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How is dysfunctional behaviour explained by classical conditioning?
Neutral stimulus paired with fear stimulus to produce a conditioned fear response of the neutral stimulus.
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Watson and Raynor - Aim
To investigate the possibility of creating a fear through classical conditioning. To investigate whether the fear can be generalised.
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Method
Case study in laboratory conditions.
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Participant
Little Albert - 11 months old and of stolid and unemotional character. Had no fearful reaction to rabbit, rat, cotton wool etc but did with a hammer striking a metal bar.
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Session 1
When Albert was presented with the rat in the lab, the metal bar was struck as he reached for the rat and was repeated. He was given a week off.
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Session 1 findings
First time, Albert jumped and fell forward. Second time he whimpered.
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Session 2
Rat alone presented. Then 3 presentations with rat and noise. Then rat alone followed by 2 with rat and noise. Then rat alone.
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Session 2 findings
After 5 paired presentations, Albert reacted to the rat alone by crying and crawling away.
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Session 3
To see if fear was generalised, Albert was brought back 5 days later and presented with the rat, rabbit, cotton wool, seal-fur coat, santa mask etc. Presentations interspersed with toys that Albert liked.
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Session 3 findings
All stimuli provoked the fear response of crying and crawling away.
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Session 4
Restested one month later with same stimuli to see if he still had fear reactions.
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Session 4 findings
Albert continued to show fear reactions.
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Conclusion
It is possible to condition fear response. Fear response can also be generalised and can last a long time.
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How is dysfunctional behaviour explained by classical conditioning?

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Neutral stimulus paired with fear stimulus to produce a conditioned fear response of the neutral stimulus.

Card 3

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Watson and Raynor - Aim

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Card 4

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Method

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Card 5

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Participant

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