Explanations for the success and failure of dieting

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What are the 3 basic forms of dieting?
Restricting food intake, Not eating certain types of food and fasting
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What are some psychological theories as to why diets fail or succeed?
Restraint theory, boundary model, attention to detail
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Who thought of the restraint theory and what did it set out to explain?
Herman and Mack (1975) set out to explain the causes and consequences associated with the cognitive restriction of food intake.they suggested that attempting not to eat, actually increases likelihood of overeating.
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What did Wardle and Beadle (1988) Research and find?
They set out to prove that food restraint can lead to overeating. 27 Obese women were randomly assigned a group either where they must restrain eating, an exercise group or a non treatment group. 7 weeks. When tested, diet group ate most.
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What model was created to try and explain why dieting leads to overeating?
Boundary model.
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Outline the boundary model.
According to model, hunger aims to keep food above a minimum and satiety aims to prevent overeating. dieters have a larger range between the 2 as it takes longer to feel hungry and harder to reach satiety.
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what is the 'what the hell effect?'
Where a dieter breaches the diet boundary, they then continue to eat until satisfied and consequently over eat.
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What is the role of denial when looking at why diets fail?
Research has shown that attempting to suppress/ deny a thought frequently has the opposite effect, making the thought more prominent.
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What did the white bear study set out to look at, and what did it find?
Looked at the role of denial. Asked half of the Ppts not to think of a white bear and others to think about it and ring the bell if they did. Found when not to think about it they did.
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what is the theory of ironic processes of mental control (Wegner)?
It represents a paradoxical effect of thought control, ie. denial backfires. eg when trying not to eat pizza or chocolate, it begins to seem more attractive.
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What is thought to make a diet succeed?
Attention to detail.
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What did Redden 2008 suggest?
A successful diet lies into how much attention we pay on food eaten. People like things less if repeated all the time, so instead of thinking 'another salad' they should think of juicy tomatoes, flavoursome apples etc...
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To test Reddens theory, he did the Jelly bean experiment, outline the process and findings.
135 people 22 jelly beans, one at a time. one group given general info such as jelly bean number 1 where as the other group were given detail. It was found that the 2nd group enjoyed the task much more, as the other group got bored.
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Evaluate the restraint theory.
-Restraining eating is advice commonly given to obese patients by doctors to help solve issues, however this model suggests that it will lead to overeating which could make people feel depressed and out of control. - can't explain how AN, diet.
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Research to support the theory of ironic processes of mental control.
Soetens et al (2006) showed Ppts who suppressed thoughts of food also showed rebound effects, and more likley to think of food after suppression.
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Culture IDA
Cultural bias in obesity, there is evidence to suggest that dieting harder for Asian adults and they are more prone to obesity.
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IDA Free will or Determinism
Some people have difficulty dieting due to LPL (lipoprotein lipase), this makes the body more effective at storing calories. challenging the idea that restraint or denial alone could solve obesity.
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What are some psychological theories as to why diets fail or succeed?

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Restraint theory, boundary model, attention to detail

Card 3

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Who thought of the restraint theory and what did it set out to explain?

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Card 4

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What did Wardle and Beadle (1988) Research and find?

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Card 5

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What model was created to try and explain why dieting leads to overeating?

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