Experiments in Child Development

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  • Created by: EClou
  • Created on: 04-04-15 15:07
who created the stage theory of attachments?
Schaffer and Emerson 1964
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give 2 METHODOLOGICAL issues of this experiment
1. it uses a triangulation technique- i.e. more than one technique such as observation and interview 2. findings may only be relevant to childrearing practices t the time, e.g. more PAFs are father now.
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give two criticisms of the stage theory
1. it suggests theres a fixed pattern of development - ignoring individual differences, 2. its based purely on western cultures and therefore is not a representative sample
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give 2 experiments that criticise the learning theory of attachment
1. Harlow 1959, 2. Shaffer and Emerson 1964
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who's is the evolutionary theory of attachment?
Bowlby
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what experiment supports bowlby's theory?
Hazan and Shaver's love quiz in the newspaper about early and then later attachment experiences
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give two alternative explanations of bowlby's theory?
1. the temperament hypothesis, 2. Rutter and Quinton- women with bad early attachment experiences developed strong adult relationships if they had a positive school experience
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give two criticisms of bowlby's theory
1. it has been argues that monotropy may not exist, 2. he ignored the importance of siblings as it has been shown that infants do develop multiple attachments.
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what was Ainsworth's experiment and what did it test?
'The Strange Situation' - tested the 'secure base' hypothesis by placing infants under mild stress in novel environments
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give tow ethical criticisms of this experiment
1. psychological harm - mild stress, 2. can't gain informed consent form an infant
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give two strengths of the experiment
1. it is easy to replicate (many cross-cultural studies have been carried out using this technique), 2. it is reliable as many studies have found similar results
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what experimenters' findings don't support ainsworth's
Main and Weston 1981
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what did Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenburg carry out?
a meta analysis of 32 different studies of attachment using the strange situation technique in 8 different countries
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what are 2 criticisms of this experiment?
1. the validity of the strange situation can be criticised as it is based on sculptural assumptions and doesn't use a representative sample, 2. different countries aren't the same as different cultures - many sub-cultures in one culture
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who demonstrated the PDD reaction to short term separation using a series of films on children such as john who was placed in a residential nursery for 9 days whilst his mum was having a baby in hospital?
Robertson and Robertson.
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what was the very unimaginative name given to this experiment?
"young children in brief separation"
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what did Schaffer and Callender (1959) observe
76 babies who were admitted to hospital -
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what does bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis state?
a break in the mother-child relationship before the age of 2.5 will lead to long-term/permanent impairment of the ability to make relationship in later life
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What and who (did) was the Forty Four Thieves experiment?
Bowlby- retrospective study looking at and comparing early life experiences of children referred to a Child Guidance Clinic with emotional maladjustment problems or theft to see if the 'thieves' had experienced more separation without adequate substitute
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give two criticisms of this experiment
1. unreliable data- collected retrospectively and memory is often inaccurate, 2. this s a natural experiment rand therefore a causal relationship is not demonstrated
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give 2 experiments that support the MDH
1. Spitz and Wolf - 100 'normal' kids institutionalised became depressed in a few months, 2. Skeels and Dye - institutionalised kids scored poorly on intelligence tests
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give the first experiment that provides evidence against the maternal deprivation hypothesis (MDH)
1. Skodak and Skeels - institutionalised kids placed in a mentally retarded adults home received love and care and their IQ after 1.5yrs ^ from 64-92pts while the control group IQs who remained institutionalised fell 87-61pts- effects of MDH can be revers
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give the second experiment that provides evidence against the maternal deprivation hypothesis (MDH)
2. Bohman and Sigvardsson - 60 adopted kids in Sweden - age 11 - 26% = "problem children" , 10yrs later, all of them were fine like the rest of the population - effects can be reversed if given a caring adoptive family.
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give 2 examples of case studies on the effects of privation
1.Koluchova - Czech twins - put in care till 18m, adopted and abused till 7yrs, attended special schl, adopted by sisters and all damage repaired - mainstream schl, 2. Skuse - sisters M&L extreme social privation, M moved to autistic schl no recovery L
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give 2 ethical issues with case studies of this kind
1. Informed consent - kids too young/damaged and adults may feel pressured, 2. psychological harm - follow up investigations may be found to be intrusive
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give 2 methodological issues with case studies of this kind
1. Retrospective - hard to establish accuracy, developmental issues may predate isolation, 2. lack of control due to multiple variables
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what is the effect of these 2 methodological issues"
it is hard to draw a causal conclusion from case studies
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give the first example of a natural experiment
Hodges and Tizard - 65 children raised in an institution with a policy against staff forming attachments, children checked at ages 2,8,16
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2 methodological criticisms
1. participant attrition, 2. sampling bias
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give the second example of a natural experiment
Rutter et al - romanian orphans - at 6, 83 showed mild/marked disinhibition, at 11 45 (54%) still showed this at 11, may of these received help from special education +/ mental health services.
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who did the experiment on whether the quality of care at the institution affects the likelihood that children can recover from privation/institutionalisation?
Dontas et al - each kid at greek orphanage had specific carer to form attachment with - when adopted, within 2wks babies adjusted + began to for attachment to new carers
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who did the experiment on whether the age of the child when removed from institution/privation affects their recovery form it?
Rutter et al - children adopted under the age of 6m made better developmental progress both cognitively and emotionally than those who'd experienced privation for longer
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which are the two experiments which show if the quality of care after the institutionalisation/privation affect their recovery from it?
Tizard and Hodges and Koluchova
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who did the experiment on whether experiences in later life can affect the individuals recovery from privation/institutionalisation?
Quinton and Rutter - (same as before - women who had good schl experiences had good later relationships)
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give two sets of research evidence for the positive effect of daycare on social development
1. Clarke-stewart et al - kids in daycare coped better in social situations/negotiations than kids in family settings, 2. Schindler et al - kids who spent more time in daycare played more pro-socially with others - more time spent = more cooperative
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give 2 sets of research evidence for the negative effect of daycare on social development
1. DiLalla - negative correlation between hours spent and amount of prosocial behaviour, 2. NICHD kids separated from mum >10hrs/wk in early life are more aggressive in kindergarten
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which experimenter also found no effect?
Clarke-stewart
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what did Campbell, Lamb and Hwang study and find?
group of children in Sweden continuously in DC from 18m-3yrs, assessed at 6.5, 8.5, 15
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give 2 methodological issues of this experiment
1. population/external validity as it took place in sweden only, 2. use of a baseline before start of the study allows for comparison
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who compared different ryes of daycare and how?
Melhuish - three groups of kids in london - private nursery, child minder, relatives , kids assessed at 18m, 3yrs for language and social skills.
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what is the design and research method of this experiment?
-natural experiment with independent group design
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what did Watamura do?
compared the cortisol levels of infants when at home and nursery on different days of the week
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what did he find?
cortisol levels increased during the day at nursery but not at home - greatest increase for those aged 24-36m or shy/fearful infants.
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Card 2

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give 2 METHODOLOGICAL issues of this experiment

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1. it uses a triangulation technique- i.e. more than one technique such as observation and interview 2. findings may only be relevant to childrearing practices t the time, e.g. more PAFs are father now.

Card 3

Front

give two criticisms of the stage theory

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

give 2 experiments that criticise the learning theory of attachment

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Card 5

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who's is the evolutionary theory of attachment?

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